Clinical Research Publications

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Last Modified, February 21, 2021
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American Society of Hematology 2021 guidelines for management of venous thromboembolism: prevention and treatment in patients with cancer

Blood Adv

2021 Gary Lyman

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication among patients with cancer. Patients with cancer and VTE are at a markedly increased risk for morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: These evidence-based guidelines of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) are intended to support patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals in their decisions about the prevention and treatment of VTE in patients with cancer. METHODS: ASH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel balanced to minimize potential bias from conflicts of interest. The guideline development process was supported by updated or new systematic evidence reviews. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess evidence and make recommendations. RESULTS: Recommendations address mechanical and pharmacological prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients with cancer, those undergoing a surgical procedure, and ambulatory patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. The recommendations also address the use of anticoagulation for the initial, short-term, and long-term treatment of VTE in patients with cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Strong recommendations include not using thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients receiving cancer chemotherapy at low risk of VTE and to use low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for initial treatment of VTE in patients with cancer. Conditional recommendations include using thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients with cancer, LMWH or fondaparinux for surgical patients with cancer, LMWH or direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in ambulatory patients with cancer receiving systemic therapy at high risk of VTE and LMWH or DOAC for initial treatment of VTE, DOAC for the short-term treatment of VTE, and LMWH or DOAC for the long-term treatment of VTE in patients with cancer.

Loss of TGFß signaling increases alternative end-joining DNA repair that sensitizes to genotoxic therapies across cancer types

Sci Transl Med

2021 Amanda Paulovich; Richard Ivey; Jeffrey Whiteaker

Among the pleotropic roles of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling in cancer, its impact on genomic stability is least understood. Inhibition of TGFβ signaling increases use of alternative end joining (alt-EJ), an error-prone DNA repair process that typically functions as a "backup" pathway if double-strand break repair by homologous recombination or nonhomologous end joining is compromised. However, the consequences of this functional relationship on therapeutic vulnerability in human cancer remain unknown. Here, we show that TGFβ broadly controls the DNA damage response and suppresses alt-EJ genes that are associated with genomic instability. Mechanistically based TGFβ and alt-EJ gene expression signatures were anticorrelated in glioblastoma, squamous cell lung cancer, and serous ovarian cancer. Consistent with error-prone repair, more of the genome was altered in tumors classified as low TGFβ and high alt-EJ, and the corresponding patients had better outcomes. Pan-cancer analysis of solid neoplasms revealed that alt-EJ genes were coordinately expressed and anticorrelated with TGFβ competency in 16 of 17 cancer types tested. Moreover, regardless of cancer type, tumors classified as low TGFβ and high alt-EJ were characterized by an insertion-deletion mutation signature containing short microhomologies and were more sensitive to genotoxic therapy. Collectively, experimental studies revealed that loss or inhibition of TGFβ signaling compromises the DNA damage response, resulting in ineffective repair by alt-EJ. Translation of this mechanistic relationship into gene expression signatures identified a robust anticorrelation that predicts response to genotoxic therapies, thereby expanding the potential therapeutic scope of TGFβ biology.

A randomized phase II study of coexpression extrapolation (COXEN) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer (SWOG S1314; NCT02177695)

Clin Cancer Res

2021 Melissa Pletts; Catherine Tangen

PURPOSE: Dose-dense Methotrexate-Vinblastine-Adriamycin-Cisplatin (ddMVAC) and Gemcitabine-Cisplatin (GC) are accepted neoadjuvant regimens for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC). The aim of this study was to validate the score from a Coexpression extrapolation (COXEN) algorithm-generated gene expression model (GEM) as a biomarker in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eligibility included cT2-T4a N0 M0, urothelial BC, {greater than or equal to} 5 mm of viable tumor, cisplatin eligible, with plan for cystectomy; 237 patients were randomized between ddMVAC, given every 14 days for 4 cycles, and GC, given every 21 days for 4 cycles. The primary objective assessed pre-specified dichotomous treatment specific COXEN score as predictive of pT0 rate or {less than or equal to} pT1 (downstaging) at surgery. RESULTS: Among 167 evaluable patients, the odds ratio for pT0 with the GC GEM score in GC-treated patients was 2.63 (p=0.10; 95% CI [0.82,8.36]); for the ddMVAC COXEN GEM score with ddMVAC treatment, the OR was 1.12 (p=0.82, 95% CI [0.42, 2.95]). The GC GEM score was applied to pooled arms (GC and ddMVAC) for downstaging with an OR of 2.33 (p=0.02; 95% CI [1.11, 4.89]). In an intention to treat analysis of eligible patients (n=227), pT0 rates for ddMVAC and GC were 28% and 30% (p = 0.75); downstaging was 47% and 40% (p = 0.27), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment-specific COXEN scores were not significantly predictive for response to individual chemotherapy treatment. The COXEN GEM GC score was significantly associated with downstaging in the pooled arms. Additional biomarker development is planned.

Pembrolizumab in mycosis fungoides with PD-L1 structural variants

Blood Adv

2021 Steven Fling; Nirasha Ramchurren; Srinivas Ramachandran; Martin Cheever

N/A

ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma: features and outcomes of 235 patients from the International T-Cell Project

Blood Adv

2021 Andrei Shustov

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK- ALCL) is an aggressive neoplasm of T-cell/null-cell lineage. The T-Cell Project is a global prospective cohort study that consecutively enrolled patients newly diagnosed with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, registered through a centralized computer database between September 2006 and February 2018. Of 1553 validated cases from 74 sites in 13 countries worldwide, 235 were reported as ALK- ALCL. The median age at diagnosis was 54 years (range, 18-89 years), with a male predominance (62%). Stage III to IV disease was identified in 71% of patients, bulky disease and bone marrow involvement were uncommon, and 66% of patients presented with a low (0-1) International Prognostic Index score. Of all treated patients, 85% received multiagent initial chemotherapy, and 8% were consolidated with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. The initial overall and complete response rates were 77% and 63%, respectively. After a median follow-up of 52 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 41-63), the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 41 months (95% CI, 17-62) and 55 months (95% CI, 36-75), respectively. The 3- and 5-year PFS rates were 52% and 43%, and the 3- and 5-year OS rates were 60% and 49%. Treatments containing both anthracycline and etoposide were associated with superior OS (P = .05) but not PFS (P = .18). In this large prospective cohort study, outcomes comparable to those previously reported in the retrospective International Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Project were observed. The study underscores the need for introducing novel platforms for ALK- ALCL and establishes a benchmark for future clinical trials. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01142674.

Predicting severe toxicities with intensive induction chemotherapy for adult acute myeloid leukemia: analysis of SWOG Cancer Research Network trials S0106 and S1203

Leuk Lymphoma

2021 Anna Moseley; Fred Appelbaum; Roland Walter; Megan Othus

N/A

Restoring RUNX1 deficiency in RUNX1 familial platelet disorder by inhibiting its degradation

Blood Adv

2021 Sioban Keel; Pamela Becker; Marshall Horwitz

RUNX1 familial platelet disorder (RUNX1-FPD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a monoallelic mutation of RUNX1, initially resulting in approximately half-normal RUNX1 activity. Clinical features include thrombocytopenia, platelet functional defects, and a predisposition to leukemia. RUNX1 is rapidly degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Moreover, it may autoregulate its expression. A predicted kinetic property of autoregulatory circuits is that transient perturbations of steady-state levels result in continued maintenance of expression at adjusted levels, even after inhibitors of degradation or inducers of transcription are withdrawn, suggesting that transient inhibition of RUNX1 degradation may have prolonged effects. We hypothesized that pharmacological inhibition of RUNX1 protein degradation could normalize RUNX1 protein levels, restore the number of platelets and their function, and potentially delay or prevent malignant transformation. In this study, we evaluated cell lines, induced pluripotent stem cells derived from patients with RUNX1-FPD, RUNX1-FPD primary bone marrow cells, and acute myeloid leukemia blood cells from patients with RUNX1 mutations. The results showed that, in some circumstances, transient expression of exogenous RUNX1 or inhibition of steps leading to RUNX1 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation restored RUNX1 levels, thereby advancing megakaryocytic differentiation in vitro. Thus, drugs retarding RUNX1 proteolytic degradation may represent a therapeutic avenue for treating bleeding complications and preventing leukemia in RUNX1-FPD.

Modernizing Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria: Recommendations of the ASCO-Friends of Cancer Research Washout Period and Concomitant Medication Work Group

Clin Cancer Res

2021 Thomas Uldrick

PURPOSE: Washout periods and concomitant medication exclusions are common in cancer clinical trial protocols. These exclusion criteria are often applied inconsistently and without evidence to justify their use. The authors sought to determine how washout period and concomitant medication allowances can be broadened to speed trial enrollment and improve the generalizability of trial data to a larger oncology practice population without compromising the safety of trial participants. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A multistakeholder working group was convened to define problems associated with excessively long washout periods and exclusion of patients due to concomitant medications. The group performed a literature search and evaluated study data from the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN), Emory University School of Medicine (Atlanta, GA), and the FDA to understand recent approaches to these eligibility criteria. The group convened to develop consensus recommendations for broadened eligibility criteria. RESULTS: The data analysis found that exclusion criteria based on washout periods and concomitant medications are frequently inconsistent and lack scientific rationale. Scientific rationale for appropriate eligibility criteria are presented in the article; for washout periods, rationale is presented by treatment type. CONCLUSIONS: Arbitrary or blanket washout and concomitant medication exclusions should be eliminated. Where there is evidence to support them, clinically relevant washout periods and concomitant medication-related eligibility criteria may be included.

Correction to: Role of androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) in prostate cancer resistance to 2nd-generation androgen receptor signaling inhibitors

Oncogene

2021 Ilsa Coleman; Peter Nelson

N/A

Continuing to Broaden Eligibility Criteria to Make Clinical Trials More Representative and Inclusive: ASCO-Friends of Cancer Research Joint Research Statement

Clin Cancer Res

2021 Thomas Uldrick

PURPOSE: Restrictive clinical trial eligibility criteria (EC) limit the number of patients who can enroll and potentially benefit from protocol-driven, investigational treatment plans and reduce the generalizability of trial results to the broader population. Following publication of expert stakeholder recommendations for broadening EC in 2017, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and Friends of Cancer Research (Friends) convened working groups to produce additional recommendations and analyze the potential impact on clinical trials using real-world data. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Multistakeholder working groups were appointed by an ASCO-Friends leadership group to propose recommendations for more inclusive EC related to: washout periods, concomitant medications, prior therapies, laboratory reference ranges and test intervals, and performance status. RESULTS: The four working groups, ASCO Board of Directors, and Friends leadership support the recommendations included in this statement to modernize EC related to washout periods, concomitant medications, prior therapies, laboratory references ranges and test intervals, and performance status to make trial populations more inclusive and representative of cancer patient populations. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the recommendations is intended to result in greater ease of determining patient eligibility. Increased opportunities for patient participation in research will help address longstanding underrepresentation of certain groups in clinical trials and produce evidence that is more informative for a broader patient population. More patients eligible will also likely speed clinical trial accrual.