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Incidence, Patterns, and Outcomes with Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Residual Disease After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Muscle-invasive Urinary Tract Cancers

Eur Urol Oncol

2019 Yu, Evan Ya-Wen

BACKGROUND: Patients with residual muscle-invasive urinary tract cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have a high risk of recurrence. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate whether additional adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) improves outcomes compared with surveillance in patients with significant residual disease despite NAC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 474 patients who received NAC from the Retrospective International Study of Cancers of the Urothelium database, of whom 129 had adverse residual disease (>/=ypT3 and/or ypN(+)). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Time to relapse (TTR) was the primary endpoint assessed starting from 2mo after surgery to minimize immortal time bias. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), incidence of AC use, and chemotherapy patterns. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models estimated TTR, OS, and associations with AC, adjusting for the type of NAC, age, and pathological stage in multivariable analyses. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 106 patients underwent surveillance, while 23 received AC. Gemcitabine-cisplatin was the most frequent regimen employed in both settings (30.4%), and the majority (82.6%) of the patients switched to a different regimen. Median follow-up was 30mo. Over 50% of patients developed a recurrence. Median TTR was 16mo (range: <1-108mo). Longer median TTR was observed with AC compared with surveillance (18 vs 10mo, p=0.06). Risk of relapse significantly decreased with AC when adjusted in multivariable analyses (p=0.01). The subgroup analyses of ypT4b/ypN(+) patients (AC: 19; surveillance: 50) who received AC had significantly greater median TTR (20 vs 9mo; hazard ratio 0.43; 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.89). No difference in OS was found. Limitations include the retrospective design. CONCLUSIONS: The utilization of AC after NAC in patients with high-risk residual disease is not frequent in clinical practice but might reduce the risk of recurrence. Further investigation is needed in this high-risk population to identify optimal therapy and to improve clinical outcomes such as the ongoing adjuvant immunotherapy trials. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that administering additional chemotherapy in patients who had significant residual disease despite preoperative chemotherapy is not frequent in clinical practice. While it might reduce the risk of recurrence, it did not clearly increase overall survival. We encourage participation in the ongoing immunotherapy trials to see whether we can improve outcomes using a different type of therapy that stimulates the immune system.

Late effects after ablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adolescent and young adult acute myeloid leukemia

Blood Adv

2020 Bhatt, Neel S

There is marked paucity of data regarding late effects in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who undergo myeloablative conditioning (MAC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated late effects and survival in 826 1-year disease-free survivors of MAC HCT for AYA AML, with an additional focus on comparing late effects based upon MAC type (total body irradiation [TBI] vs high-dose chemotherapy only). The estimated 10-year cumulative incidence of subsequent neoplasms was 4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2%-6%); 10-year cumulative incidence of nonmalignant late effects included gonadal dysfunction (10%; 95% CI, 8%-13%), cataracts (10%; 95% CI, 7%-13%), avascular necrosis (8%; 95% CI, 5%-10%), diabetes mellitus (5%; 95% CI, 3%-7%), and hypothyroidism (3%; 95% CI, 2%-5%). Receipt of TBI was independently associated with a higher risk of cataracts only (hazard ratio [HR], 4.98; P < .0001) whereas chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was associated with an increased risk of cataracts (HR, 3.22; P = .0006), avascular necrosis (HR, 2.49; P = .006), and diabetes mellitus (HR, 3.36; P = .03). Estimated 10-year overall survival and leukemia-free survival were 73% and 70%, respectively, and did not differ on the basis of conditioning type. In conclusion, late effects among survivors of MAC HCT for AYA AML are frequent and are more closely linked to cGVHD than type of conditioning.

Therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: A revised consensus guideline and review by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists

Am J Health Syst Pharm

2020 Liu, Catherine

N/A

Prognostic Impact of CSF3R Mutations in Favorable Risk Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Blood

2020 Meshinchi, Soheil; Ries, Rhonda E; Smith, Jenny Leopoldina; Tarlock, Katherine; Hylkema, Tiffany A

N/A

Mutations in the RNA splicing factor SF3B1 promote tumorigenesis through MYC stabilization

Cancer Discov

2020 Lee, Stanley C

Although mutations in the RNA splicing factor SF3B1 are frequent in multiple cancers, their functional effects and therapeutic dependencies are poorly understood. Here we characterize 98 tumors and 12 isogenic cell lines harboring SF3B1 hotspot mutations, identifying hundreds of cryptic 3' splice sites common and specific to different cancer types. Regulatory network analysis revealed that the most common SF3B1 mutation activates MYC via effects conserved across human and mouse cells. SF3B1 mutations promote decay of transcripts encoding the PP2A phosphatase subunit PPP2R5A, increasing c-MYC S62 and BCL2 S70 phosphorylation which, in turn, promote MYC protein stability and impair apoptosis, respectively. Genetic PPP2R5A restoration or pharmacologic PP2A activation impaired SF3B1-mutant tumorigenesis elucidating a therapeutic approach to aberrant splicing by mutant SF3B1.

The Association between Chronic Conditions, End-of-Life Health Care Use, and Documentation of Advance Care Planning among Patients with Cancer

J Palliat Med

2020 Sorror, Mohamed L

Background: Multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) are associated with increased intensity of end-of-life (EOL) care, but their effect is not well explored in patients with cancer. Objective: We examined EOL health care intensity and advance care planning (ACP) documentation to better understand the association between MCCs and these outcomes. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting/Subjects: Patients aged 18+ years at UW Medicine who died during 2010-2017 with poor prognosis cancer, with or without chronic liver disease, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, dementia, diabetes with end-stage organ damage, end-stage renal disease, heart failure, or peripheral vascular disease. Measurements: ACP documentation 30+ days before death, in-hospital death, and inpatient or intensive care unit (ICU) admission in the last 30 days. We performed logistic regression for outcomes. Results: Of 15,092 patients with cancer, 10,596 (70%) had 1+ MCCs (range 1-8). Patients with cancer and heart failure had highest odds of hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46-1.91), ICU admission (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.76-2.41), or in-hospital death (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.43-1.84) versus patients with cancer and other conditions. Patients with ACP 30+ days before death had lower odds of in-hospital death (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.60-0.71), hospitalization (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.61-0.74), or ICU admission (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.64-0.80). Conclusions: Patients with ACP 30+ days before death had lower odds of high-intensity EOL care. Further research needs to explore how to best use ACP to ensure patients receive care aligned with patient and family goals for care.

Biokinetics of Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody BC8: Differences in Biodistribution and Dosimetry among Hematologic Malignancies

J Nucl Med

2020 Orozco, Johnnie J; Press, Oliver W; Cassaday, Ryan D; Matesan, Manuela; Gopal, Ajay K; Rajendran, Joseph; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Green, Damian J

We reviewed 111In-DOTA-anti-CD45 antibody (BC8) imaging and bone marrow biopsy measurements to ascertain biodistribution and biokinetics of the radiolabeled antibody and to investigate differences based on type of hematologic malignancy. Methods: Serial whole-body scintigraphic images (4 time-points) were obtained after infusion of the 111In-DOTA-BC8 (176-406 MBq) in 52 adult patients with hematologic malignancies (lymphoma, multiple myeloma, acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome). Counts were obtained for the regions of interest for spleen, liver, kidneys, testicles (in males), and two marrow sites (acetabulum and sacrum) and correction for attenuation and background was made. Bone marrow biopsies were obtained 14-24 hours post-infusion and percent of administered activity was determined. Radiation absorbed doses were calculated. Results: Initial uptake in liver averaged 32% ± 8.4% (S.D.) of administered activity (52 patients), which cleared monoexponentially with biological half-time of 293 ± 157 hours (33 patients) or did not clear (19 patients). Initial uptake in spleen averaged 22% ± 12% and cleared with a biological half-time 271 ± 185 hours (36 patients) or longer (6 patients). Initial uptake in kidney averaged 2.4% ± 2.0% and cleared with a biological half-time of 243 ± 144 hours (27 patients) or longer (9 patients). Initial uptake in red marrow averaged 23% ± 11% and cleared with half-times of 215 ± 107 hours (43 patients) or longer (5 patients). Whole-body retention half-times averaged 198 ± 75 hours. Splenic uptake was higher in the AML/MDS group when compared to the lymphoma group (p ≤ 0.05) and to the multiple myeloma group (p ≤ 0.10). Liver represented the dose-limiting organ. For liver uptake, no significant differences were observed between the three malignancy groups. Average calculated radiation absorbed doses per unit administered activity for a therapy infusions of 90Y-DOTA-BC8 were for red marrow: 470 ± 260 cGy/MBq, liver 1100 ± 330 cGy/MBq, spleen 4120 ± 1950 cGy/MBq, total body 7520 ± 20 cGy/MBq, osteogenic cells 290 ± 200 cGy/MBq, and kidneys 240 ± 200 cGy/MBqR. Conclusion:111In-DOTA-BC8 had long retention time in liver, spleen, kidneys, and red marrow, and the highest absorbed doses were calculated for spleen and liver. Few differences were observed by malignancy type. The exception was greater splenic uptake among leukemia/MDS group when compared to lymphoma and multiple myeloma groups.

Microtransplantation in Older Patients with AML: A Pilot Study of Safety, Efficacy and Immunologic Effects

Am J Hematol

2020 Gadi, Vijayakrishna

Older AML patients have low remission rates and poor survival outcomes with standard chemotherapy. Microtransplantation (MST) refers to infusion of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells without substantial engraftment. MST has been shown to improve clinical outcomes compared with chemotherapy alone. This is the first trial reporting on broad correlative studies to define immunologic mechanisms of action of MST in older AML patients. Older patients with newly diagnosed AML were eligible for enrollment, receiving induction chemotherapy with cytarabine and idarubicin (7+3). MST was administered 24 hours later. Patients with CR were eligible for consolidation with high dose cytarabine and a second cycle of MST. Responses were evaluated according to standard criteria per NCCN. Immune correlative studies were performed. Sixteen patients were enrolled and received 7+3 and MST (median age 73 years). Nine (56%) had high-risk and seven (44%) had standard-risk cytogenetics. Ten episodes of CRS were observed. No cases of GVHD or treatment-related mortality were reported. EFS was 50% at 6 months and 19% at 1 year. OS was 63% at 6 months and 44% at 1 year. Donor microchimerism was not detected. Longitudinal changes were noted in NGS, TCR sequencing, and cytokine assays. Addition of MST to induction and consolidation chemotherapy was well tolerated in older AML patients. Inferior survival outcomes in our study may be attributed to a higher proportion of very elderly patients with high-risk features. Potential immunologic mechanisms of activity of MST include attenuation of inflammatory cytokines and emergence of tumor-specific T cell clones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Risk factors for cancer-related distress in colorectal cancer survivors: one year post surgery

J Cancer Surviv

2020 Syrjala, Karen L; Grady, William M; Han, Claire Jungyoun; Li, Christopher I

PURPOSES: Cancer-related distress is known to persist long after completion of treatment. Factors related to distress are largely unexplored in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. We examined changes over time and risk factors for distress in CRC patients over the first year after surgery. METHODS: We included 212 CRC patients with data at 6 and 12months post-surgery from the ColoCare Study in Heidelberg, Germany. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, social support, and health-related quality of life (HrQOL) prior to surgery were evaluated as predictors of cancer-related distress. Distress was measured with the Cancer and Treatment Distress instrument (CTXD). Linear regression analyses examined associations between risk factors and distress. RESULTS: Distress subscale scores varied significantly over time: health burden subscale score increased (P<.001), while finances (P=.004), medical demands (P<.001), and identity (P<.001) subscale scores decreased over time. Uncertainty and family strain subscale scores did not change. Younger age, lower income, advanced tumor stage, poorer social support, and poorer baseline HrQOL predicted higher level distress at 6 and 12months. CONCLUSION: Cancer-related distress continues unresolved after surgery. Although some risk factors are difficult to alter, those at highest risk can be identified earlier for possible preventive strategies. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Screening for risk factors pre-surgery would allow for targeted interventions including strategies to improve resources for those with low support, thereby reducing long-term distress in CRC survivors.

Higher total body irradiation dose-intensity in fludarabine/TBI-based reduced-intensity conditioning regimen is associated with inferior survival in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation: Flu/2Gy TBI vs Flu/4Gy TBI in NHL

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant

2020 Chow, Victor A

INTRODUCTION: Disease relapse is the most common cause of therapy failure in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). It is not known whether or not increasing total body irradiation (TBI) dose from 2Gy to 4Gy in RIC-platform can provide improved disease control without increasing non-relapse mortality (NRM). Using the CIBMTR database we evaluated the outcomes of NHL patients receiving RIC alloHCT with either fludarabine (Flu)/2Gy TBI vs. Flu/4Gy TBI. METHODS: In the CIBMTR registry, 413 adult NHL patients underwent a first alloHCT using either a matched related or unrelated donor between 2008-2017, utilizing a RIC regimen with either Flu/2Gy TBI (n=349) or Flu/4Gy TBI (n=64). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included acute (a) and chronic (c) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), NRM, relapse/progression and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: At baseline the Flu/2Gy TBI cohort had significantly fewer patients with KPS 90 and significantly more patients had a higher HCT-CI. On multivariate analysis the two conditioning cohorts were not significantly different in terms of risk of grade 3-4 aGVHD or cGVHD. Compared to Flu/2Gy TBI, the Flu/4Gy TBI conditioning was associated with a significantly higher risk of NRM (HR 1.79, 95%CI=1.11-2.89, p=0.02), and inferior OS (HR 1.51, 95%CI=1.03-2.23, p=0.03). No significant differences were seen in the risk of relapse/progression (HR 0.78, 95%CI=0.47-1.29, p=0.33) or PFS (HR 1.09, 95%CI=0.78-1.54, p=0.61) between the two regimens. Comparing Flu/2Gy TBI vs. Flu/4Gy TBI cohorts the 5-year adjusted outcomes were; NRM (28% vs. 47%; p=0.005), relapse/progression (35% vs. 29%; p=0.28), PFS (37% vs. 24%; p=0.03) and OS (51% vs. 31%; p=0.001), respectively. Relapse was the most common cause of death in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In NHL patients undergoing Flu/TBI-based conditioning, augmenting TBI dose from 2Gy to 4Gy is associated with higher NRM and inferior OS, without any significant benefit in terms of disease control. 2Gy is optimal dose in the RIC Flu/TBI platform for lymphomas.