The largest study of its kind concludes that long-term multivitamin use has no impact on the risk of common cancers, cardiovascular disease or overall mortality in postmenopausal women. The results of the Women’s Health Initiative study, led by Dr. Marian Neuhouser of the Public Health Sciences Division, appeared in the Feb. 9 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine. The study focused the effects of multivitamins because they are the most commonly used supplement.
“Dietary supplements are used by more than half of all Americans, who spend more than $20 billion on these products each year. However, scientific data are lacking on the long-term health benefits of supplements,” said Neuhouser. “To our surprise, we found that multivitamins did not lower the risk of the most common cancers and also had no impact on heart disease,” she said.
The study assessed multivitamin use among nearly 162,000 women enrolled in the WHI, one of the largest U.S. prevention studies of its kind designed to address the most common causes of death, disability and impaired quality of life in postmenopausal women. The women were followed for about eight years.
Nearly half of the study participants—41.5 percent—reported using multivitamins on a regular basis. Multivitamin users were more likely to be white, live in the western United States, have a lower body-mass index, be more physically active and have a college degree or higher as compared to non-users. Multivitamin users also were more likely to drink alcohol and less likely to smoke than non-users, and they reported eating more fruits and vegetables and consuming less fat than non-users.
During the eight-year study period, 9,619 cases of breast, colorectal, endometrial, renal, bladder, stomach, lung or ovarian cancer were reported, as well as 8,751 cardiovascular events and 9,865 deaths. The study found no significant differences in risk of cancer, heart disease or death between the multivitamin users and non-users.
These findings are consistent with most previously published results regarding the lack of health benefits of multivitamins, Neuhouser said, but this study provides definitive evidence. “The Women’s Health Initiative is one of the largest studies ever done on diet and health. Thus, because we have such a large and diverse sample size, including women from 40 sites across the nation, our results can be generalized to a healthy population.” Since the study did not include men, Neuhouser cautions that the results may not apply to them.
Advice for optimal nutrition
“Get nutrients from food,” Neuhouser said. “Whole foods are better than dietary supplements. Getting a wide variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains is particularly important.”
The Hutchinson Center houses the WHI Clinical Coordinating Center, which oversees the statistical, epidemiologic, nutritional and clinical aspects of the study and is responsible for data collection, management and analysis. The Clinical Coordinating Center also plays a key role in clinical, nutritional, laboratory and data quality-assurance activities.
The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services funded the study. The study involved researchers from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, the Department of Nutritional Sciences at the University of Arizona, Harvard Medical School, Northwestern University, University of Alabama, and Medstar Research Institute.