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Coordinated alterations in RNA splicing and epigenetic regulation drive leukaemogenesis

Nature

2019 Bradley, Robert K, PhD Robert Bradley

Transcription and pre-mRNA splicing are key steps in the control of gene expression and mutations in genes regulating each of these processes are common in leukaemia1,2. Despite the frequent overlap of mutations affecting epigenetic regulation and splicing in leukaemia, how these processes influence one another to promote leukaemogenesis is not understood and, to our knowledge, there is no functional evidence that mutations in RNA splicing factors initiate leukaemia. Here, through analyses of transcriptomes from 982 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, we identified frequent overlap of mutations in IDH2 and SRSF2 that together promote leukaemogenesis through coordinated effects on the epigenome and RNA splicing. Whereas mutations in either IDH2 or SRSF2 imparted distinct splicing changes, co-expression of mutant IDH2 altered the splicing effects of mutant SRSF2 and resulted in more profound splicing changes than either mutation alone. Consistent with this, co-expression of mutant IDH2 and SRSF2 resulted in lethal myelodysplasia with proliferative features in vivo and enhanced self-renewal in a manner not observed with either mutation alone. IDH2 and SRSF2 double-mutant cells exhibited aberrant splicing and reduced expression of INTS3, a member of the integrator complex3, concordant with increased stalling of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Aberrant INTS3 splicing contributed to leukaemogenesis in concert with mutant IDH2 and was dependent on mutant SRSF2 binding to cis elements in INTS3 mRNA and increased DNA methylation of INTS3. These data identify a pathogenic crosstalk between altered epigenetic state and splicing in a subset of leukaemias, provide functional evidence that mutations in splicing factors drive myeloid malignancy development, and identify spliceosomal changes as a mediator of IDH2-mutant leukaemogenesis.

Severity of reduced bone mineral density and risk of fractures in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia and lymphoma undergoing guideline-recommended surveillance for bone health

Cancer

2019 Chow, Eric J, MD, MPH Eric Chow

BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood leukemia/lymphoma are at increased risk for reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The authors sought to determine the frequency of reduced BMD detected by off-therapy surveillance, factors associated with reduced BMD, and the association of reduced BMD with fractures. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included childhood leukemia/lymphoma survivors attending 2 survivorship clinics who received guideline-recommended BMD surveillance 2years post-therapy with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (from January 1, 2004 to August 31, 2016). Lumbar spine BMD z-scores were height-for-age-adjusted. Low and very low BMD were >1 SD and >2 SDs below norms, respectively. Treatment, chronic conditions, and fractures were abstracted from medical records. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of low BMD with patient/treatment factors and fractures. RESULTS: In total, 542 patients (51.5% female) with a mean age of 15.5years (range, 4.4-52.2years) who were 6years post-therapy (range, 2.0-35.1years) were evaluated, including 116 who reported post-therapy fractures. Lumbar spine low BMD was identified in 17.2% of survivors, and very low BMD was identified in 3.5% of survivors, but frequencies varied considerably between subgroups; 10.8% of survivors aged 15 to 19years at diagnosis had very low BMD. In multivariable analyses, older age at diagnosis, white race, and being underweight were significantly associated with low BMD. Survivors with low BMD had greater odds of nondigit fractures (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.7) and specifically long-bone fractures (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.5-4.7). CONCLUSIONS: In this study of childhood leukemia/lymphoma survivors undergoing guideline-recommended dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry surveillance, patients who were older at diagnosis, white, and underweight were at the highest risk for lumbar spine low BMD. Low BMD was associated with a greater risk of fractures, emphasizing the clinical importance of surveillance.

Are National Comprehensive Cancer Network Evidence Block Affordability Ratings Representative of Real-World Costs? An Evaluation of Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

J Oncol Pract

2019 Ramsey, Scott D, MD, PhD Scott Ramsey

PURPOSE: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) developed the Evidence Blocks framework to assess the value of oncology regimens. This study characterizes the relationship between real-world costs and NCCN affordability ratings (ARs) for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) treatments. METHODS: Using the MarketScan and PharMetrics Plus databases, we identified patients treated between 2012 and 2017 with an aNSCLC regimen evaluated by the NCCN Evidence Blocks. We estimated adjusted mean total per-patient-per-month (PPPM) costs and drug costs for each regimen using a log-linked gamma generalized linear model. Weighted regression was used to examine the correlation between adjusted mean PPPM costs per regimen and NCCN AR. RESULTS: A total of 25,162 patients with aNSCLC (mean age, 63 years [standard deviation, 10 years]; 52% male) had identifiable regimens. Mean total PPPM cost by therapeutic class ranged from $16,824 for epidermal growth factor receptors to $41,815 for immunotherapy-based treatment. Epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor treatment had lower ARs compared with generic chemotherapy. No therapy was listed as AR group 5 (least expensive). In pairwise comparisons, AR group 1 had significantly higher PPPM total costs compared with AR groups 2 and 4. There were no significant differences in PPPM total cost among AR groups 2, 3, and 4. CONCLUSION: Real-world aNSCLC treatment costs are often inconsistent with the NCCN ARs. Given that NCCN Evidence Blocks are intended to inform provider-patient discussions and other decision support resources, such as the NCCN Categories of Preference, our results suggest that the NCCN ARs require further refinement and validation.

A Meta-analysis of Passive Immunization Studies Shows that Serum-Neutralizing Antibody Titer Associates with Protection against SHIV Challenge

Cell Host Microbe

2019 Huang, Yunda Yunda Huang

Passively administered broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) targeting the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) have been shown to protect non-human primates (NHPs) against chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection. With data from multiple non-human primate SHIV challenge studies that used single bNAbs, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the relationship between predicted serum 50% neutralization titer (ID50) against the challenge virus and infection outcome. In a logistic model that adjusts for bNAb epitopes and challenge viruses, serum ID50 had a highly significant effect on infection risk (p < 0.001). The estimated ID50 to achieve 50%, 75%, and 95% protection was 91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55, 153), 219 (117, 410), and 685 (319, 1471), respectively. This analysis indicates that serum neutralizing titer against the relevant virus is a key parameter of protection and that protection from acquisition by a single bNAb might require substantial levels of neutralization at the time of exposure.

Nucleosomes remember where they were

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

2019 Henikoff, Steven, PhD Steven Henikoff

N/A

Effect of Universal Testing and Treatment on HIV Incidence - HPTN 071 (PopART)

The New England journal of medicine

2019 Wilson, Ethan A

BACKGROUND: A universal testing and treatment strategy is a potential approach to reduce the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, yet previous trial results are inconsistent. METHODS: In the HPTN 071 (PopART) community-randomized trial conducted from 2013 through 2018, we randomly assigned 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa (total population, approximately 1 million) to group A (combination prevention intervention with universal antiretroviral therapy [ART]), group B (the prevention intervention with ART provided according to local guidelines [universal since 2016]), or group C (standard care). The prevention intervention included home-based HIV testing delivered by community workers, who also supported linkage to HIV care and ART adherence. The primary outcome, HIV incidence between months 12 and 36, was measured in a population cohort of approximately 2000 randomly sampled adults (18 to 44 years of age) per community. Viral suppression (<400 copies of HIV RNA per milliliter) was assessed in all HIV-positive participants at 24 months. RESULTS: The population cohort included 48,301 participants. Baseline HIV prevalence was 21% or 22% in each group. Between months 12 and 36, a total of 553 new HIV infections were observed during 39,702 person-years (1.4 per 100 person-years; women, 1.7; men, 0.8). The adjusted rate ratio for group A as compared with group C was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.18; P = 0.51) and for group B as compared with group C was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.88; P = 0.006). The percentage of HIV-positive participants with viral suppression at 24 months was 71.9% in group A, 67.5% in group B, and 60.2% in group C. The estimated percentage of HIV-positive adults in the community who were receiving ART at 36 months was 81% in group A and 80% in group B. CONCLUSIONS: A combination prevention intervention with ART provided according to local guidelines resulted in a 30% lower incidence of HIV infection than standard care. The lack of effect with universal ART was unanticipated and not consistent with the data on viral suppression. In this trial setting, universal testing and treatment reduced the population-level incidence of HIV infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; HPTN 071 [PopArt] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01900977.).

A live-attenuated RhCMV/SIV vaccine shows long-term efficacy against heterologous SIV challenge

Sci Transl Med

2019 Shao, Jason

Previous studies have established that strain 68-1-derived rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) proteins (RhCMV/SIV) are able to elicit and maintain cellular immune responses that provide protection against mucosal challenge of highly pathogenic SIV in rhesus monkeys (RMs). However, these efficacious RhCMV/SIV vectors were replication and spread competent and therefore have the potential to cause disease in immunocompromised subjects. To develop a safer CMV-based vaccine for clinical use, we attenuated 68-1 RhCMV/SIV vectors by deletion of the Rh110 gene encoding the pp71 tegument protein (DeltaRh110), allowing for suppression of lytic gene expression. DeltaRh110 RhCMV/SIV vectors are highly spread deficient in vivo (~1000-fold compared to the parent vector) yet are still able to superinfect RhCMV(+) RMs and generate high-frequency effector-memory-biased T cell responses. Here, we demonstrate that DeltaRh110 68-1 RhCMV/SIV-expressing homologous or heterologous SIV antigens are highly efficacious against intravaginal (IVag) SIVmac239 challenge, providing control and progressive clearance of SIV infection in 59% of vaccinated RMs. Moreover, among 12 DeltaRh110 RhCMV/SIV-vaccinated RMs that controlled and progressively cleared an initial SIV challenge, 9 were able to stringently control a second SIV challenge ~3 years after last vaccination, demonstrating the durability of this vaccine. Thus, DeltaRh110 RhCMV/SIV vectors have a safety and efficacy profile that warrants adaptation and clinical evaluation of corresponding HCMV vectors as a prophylactic HIV/AIDS vaccine.

Assessing pharmacokinetic marker correlates of outcome, with application to antibody prevention efficacy trials

Stat Med

2019 Zhang, Yuanyuan Yunda Huang

The Antibody Mediated Prevention efficacy trials are the first studies to evaluate whether passive administration of a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody can prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. The trials randomize 4600 HIV-negative volunteers to receive 10 infusions of the monoclonal antibody VRC01 or placebo. The primary objective compares the incidence of HIV infection between the study groups. The secondary objective assesses whether and how a marker defined as the serum concentration of VRC01 over time associates with the instantaneous rate of HIV infection, using a two-phase sampling design, a pharmacokinetic model for the time-concentration curve, and an estimator of HIV infection times. While a Cox model with a time-dependent covariate constitutes an important approach to this problem, the low interindividual versus intraindividual marker variability limits its power, motivating us to develop two alternative methods that condition on outcome status: (1) an indirect method that checks whether HIV-infected cases have unexpectedly long times from the most recent infusion to the estimated infection date and (2) a direct method that checks whether the marker itself is unexpectedly low at estimated infection dates. In simulations and a pseudo Antibody Mediated Prevention application, we find that method (2) (but not (1)) has greater power than the Cox model. We also find that the quality of the infection time estimator majorly impacts method performance, and thus, incorporating details of an optimized estimator is critical. The methods apply more generally for assessing a time-dependent longitudinal marker as a correlate of risk when the marker trajectory is modeled pharmacokinetically.

Cytomegalovirus hepatitis after bone marrow transplantation: An autopsy study with clinical, histologic, and laboratory correlates

J Viral Hepat

2019 Myerson, Dave, MD, PhD

Mortality from Cytomegalovirus disease after marrow transplantation can be reduced by treatment with anti-viral drugs based on detection of viremia and organ involvement. We examined autopsy liver specimens to determine the frequency, extent, and outcome of cytomegalovirus hepatitis and whether cytomegalovirus hepatitis occurred in the absence of cytomegalovirus disease elsewhere. Autopsy specimens from 50 transplant patients were evaluated for cytomegalovirus-infected cells, in five groups of 10, according to extent of CMV during life and at autopsy. Liver sections were examined by routine light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ DNA hybridization. Clinical and laboratory data collected during the last 30 days of life were analyzed as markers of liver cytomegalovirus infection. Cytomegalovirus-infected cells were detected in the livers of 10/10 patients with cytomegalovirus infection during life and wide-spread cytomegalovirus at autopsy; in 3/20 livers from patients with cytomegalovirus infection during life but negative liver cultures at autopsy; and in 1/10 livers from cytomegalovirus-seropositive patients who had been without other evidence of cytomegalovirus infection. Histology detected a lower density of cytomegalovirus-bearing cells per unit area of liver, compared to immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridiation. No cytomegalovirus-infected cells were detected in livers from cytomegalovirus-seronegative controls. No distinctive clinical or laboratory findings correlated with liver cytomegalovirus detection. CMV liver disease is common in allografted patients with disseminated CMV but may rarely be isolated to the liver, best demonstrated with IHC and ISH. Massive hepatic necrosis from CMV was not seen in any autopsy liver in this study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Outcomes for Relapsed and Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Patients after Front-Line Therapy from the COMPLETE Registry

Acta Haematol

2019 Shustov, Andrei R, MD

BACKGROUND: Outcomes for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) who fail to achieve complete response (CR) or relapse after front-line therapy are poor with lack of prospective outcomes data. OBJECTIVES: COMPLETE is a prospective registry of 499 patients enrolled at academic and community sites in the United States detailing patient demographics, treatment and outcomes for patients with aggressive T cell lymphomas. We report results for patients with primary refractory and relapsed disease. METHODS: Primary refractory disease was defined as an evaluable best response to initial treatment (induction +/- maintenance or consolidation/transplant) other than CR, and included a partial response, progressive disease, or no response/stable disease. Relapsed disease was defined as an evaluable best response to initial treatment of CR, followed by disease progression at a later date, irrespective of time to progression. Patients were included in the analysis if initial treatment began within 30 days of enrollment and treatment duration was >/=4 days. RESULTS: Of 420 evaluable patients, 97 met the definition for primary refractory and 58 with relapsed disease. In the second-line setting, relapsed patients received single-agent therapies more often than refractory patients (52 vs. 28%; p = 0.01) and were more likely to receive single-agent regimens (74 vs. 53%; p = 0.03). The objective response rate to second-line therapy was higher in relapsed patients (61 vs. 40%; p = 0.04) as was the proportion achieving a CR (41 vs. 14%; p = 0.002). Further, relapsed patients had longer overall survival (OS) compared to refractory patients, with a median OS of 29.1 versus 12.3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of newer active single agents, refractory patients were less likely to receive these therapies and continue to have inferior outcomes compared to those with relapsed disease. PTCL in the real world remains an unmet medical need, and improvements in front-line therapies are needed.

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