BACKGROUND: Menopausal estrogen-alone therapy is a risk factor for endometrial and ovarian cancers. When a progestin is included with the estrogen daily (continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy), there is no increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, the effect of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy on risk of ovarian cancer is less clear. METHODS: We pooled primary data from five population-based case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, including 1,509 postmenopausal ovarian cancer cases and 2,295 postmenopausal controls. Information on previous menopausal hormonal therapy use, as well as ovarian cancer risk factors, was collected using in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy and risk of ovarian cancer by duration and recency of use and disease histotype. RESULTS: Ever postmenopausal use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy was not associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer overall (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.72-1.0). A decreased risk was observed for mucinous ovarian cancer (OR=0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.91). The other main ovarian cancer histotypes did not show an association (endometrioid: OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.57-1.3, clear cell: OR=0.68, 95% CI 0.40-1.2, serous: OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.80-1.2). CONCLUSIONS: Given that estrogen-alone therapy has been shown to be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adding a progestin each day ameliorates the carcinogenic effects of estrogen on the cells of origin for all histotypes of ovarian cancer.
Most HIV-1 infected individuals do not know their infection dates. Precise infection timing is crucial information for studies that document transmission networks or drug levels at infection. To improve infection timing, we used the prospective RV217 cohort where the window when plasma viremia becomes detectable is narrow: the last negative visit occurred a median of four days before the first detectable HIV-1 viremia with an RNA test, referred below as diagnosis. We sequenced 1,280 HIV-1 genomes from 39 participants at a median of 4, 32 and 170 days post-diagnosis. HIV-1 infections were dated by using sequence-based methods and a viral load regression method. Bayesian coalescent and viral load regression estimated that infections occurred a median of 6 days prior to diagnosis (IQR: 9-3 and 11-4 days prior, respectively). Poisson-Fitter, which analyzes the distribution of hamming distances among sequences, estimated a median of 7 days prior to diagnosis (IQR: 15-4 days) based on sequences sampled 4 days post-diagnosis, but it did not yield plausible results using sequences sampled at 32 days. Fourteen participants reported a high-risk exposure event at a median of 8 days prior to diagnosis (IQR: 12 to 6 days prior). These different methods concurred that HIV-1 infection occurred about a week before detectable viremia, corresponding to 20 days (IQR: 34-15 days) before peak viral load. Together, our methods comparison helps define a framework for future dating studies in early HIV-1 infection.
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that low-dose direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), including rivaroxaban and apixaban, may help reduce the incidence of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was performed from the health sector perspective using a Markov state-transition model in patients with cancer who are at intermediate-to-high risk for VTE. Transition probability, relative risk, cost, and utility inputs were obtained from a meta-analysis of the RCTs and relevant epidemiology studies. Differences in cost, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per patient were calculated over a lifetime horizon. One-way, probabilistic, and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: In patients with cancer at intermediate-to-high risk for VTE, treatment with low-dose DOAC thromboprophylaxis for 6months, compared with placebo, was associated with 32 per 1000 fewer VTE and 11 per 1000 more major bleeding episodes over a lifetime. The incremental cost and QALY increases were $1445 and 0.12, respectively, with an ICER of $11,947 per QALY gained. Key drivers of ICER variations included the relative risks of VTE and bleeding as well as drug cost. This strategy was 94% cost effective at the threshold of $50,000 per QALY. The selection of patients with Khorana scores 3 yielded the greatest value, with an ICER of $5794 per QALY gained. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose DOAC thromboprophylaxis for 6months appears to be cost-effective in patients with cancer who are at intermediate-to-high risk for VTE. The implementation of this strategy in patients with Khorana scores 3 may lead to the highest cost-benefit ratio.
BACKGROUND: With improved survivorship rates for colorectal cancer (CRC), more CRC survivors are living with long-term disease and treatment side effects. Little research exists on CRC symptoms or symptom management guidelines to support these individuals after cancer treatments. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to systematically review symptom experiences, risk factors, and the impact of symptoms and to examine the pooled frequency and severity of symptoms via meta-analyses in CRC survivors after cancer treatments. METHODS: Relevant studies were systematically searched in 7 databases from 2009 to 2019. Meta-analysis was conducted for pooled estimates of symptom frequency and severity. RESULTS: Thirty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. Six studies assessed multiple CRC symptoms, whereas 29 focused on a single symptom, including peripheral neuropathy, psychological distress, fatigue, body image distress, cognitive impairment, and insomnia. The pooled mean frequency was highest for body image distress (78.5%). On a scale of 0 to 100, the pooled mean severity was highest for fatigue (50.1). Gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and insomnia were also major problems in CRC survivors. Multiple factors contributed to adverse symptoms, such as younger age, female gender, and lack of family/social support. Symptoms negatively impacted quality of life, social and sexual functioning, financial status, and caregivers' physical and mental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal cancer survivors experienced multiple adverse symptoms related to distinct risk factors. These symptoms negatively impacted patients and caregivers' well-being. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Healthcare providers can use study findings to better assess and monitor patient symptoms after cancer treatments. More research is needed on CRC-specific symptoms and their effective management.
J Natl Cancer Inst
BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) in Europeans using three approaches, FUSION, MetaXcan and SMulTiXcan. We integrated GWAS summary statistics from 9,040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12,496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics, LTG (n=95) and Genotype-Tissue Expression, GTEx v7 (n=174) datasets), and data from 48 different tissues (GTEx v7, n=74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (FDR < 0.05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12:, PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at 6 known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci, and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1 and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.
Importance: The 21-gene assay recurrence score is increasingly used to personalize treatment recommendations for systemic therapy in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)- or progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, node-positive breast cancer; however, the relevance of the 21-gene assay to radiotherapy decisions remains uncertain. Objective: To examine the association between recurrence score and locoregional recurrence (LRR) in a postmenopausal patient population treated with adjuvant chemotherapy followed by tamoxifen or tamoxifen alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was a retrospective analysis of the Southwest Oncology Group S8814, a phase 3 randomized clinical trial of postmenopausal women with ER/PR-positive, node-positive breast cancer treated with tamoxifen alone, chemotherapy followed by tamoxifen, or concurrent tamoxifen and chemotherapy. Patients at North American clinical centers were enrolled from June 1989 to July 1995. Medical records from patients with recurrence score information were reviewed for LRR and radiotherapy use. Primary analysis included 316 patients and excluded 37 who received both mastectomy and radiotherapy, 9 who received breast-conserving surgery without documented radiotherapy, and 5 with unknown surgical type. All analyses were performed from January 22, 2016, to August 9, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The LRR was defined as a recurrence in the breast; chest wall; or axillary, infraclavicular, supraclavicular, or internal mammary lymph nodes. Time to LRR was tested with log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards regression for multivariate models. Results: The final cohort of this study comprised 316 women with a mean (range) age of 60.4 (44-81) years. Median (interquartile range) follow-up for those without LRR was 8.7 (7.0-10.2) years. Seven LRR events (5.8%) among 121 patients with low recurrence score and 27 LRR events (13.8%) among 195 patients with intermediate or high recurrence score occurred. The estimated 10-year cumulative incidence rates were 9.7% for those with a low recurrence score and 16.5% for the group with intermediate or high recurrence score (P=.02). Among patients who had a mastectomy without radiotherapy (n=252), the differences in the 10-year actuarial LRR rates remained significant: 7.7 % for the low recurrence score group vs 16.8% for the intermediate or high recurrence score group (P=.03). A multivariable model controlling for randomized treatment, number of positive nodes, and surgical type showed that a higher recurrence score was prognostic for LRR (hazard ratio [HR],2.36; 95% CI, 1.02-5.45; P=.04). In a subset analysis of patients with a mastectomy and 1 to 3 involved nodes who did not receive radiation therapy, the group with a low recurrence score had a 1.5% rate of LRR, whereas the group with an intermediate or high recurrence score had a 11.1% LRR (P=.051). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that higher recurrence scores were associated with increased LRR after adjustment for treatment, type of surgical procedure, and number of positive nodes. This finding suggests that the recurrence score may be used, along with accepted clinical variables, to assess the risk of LRR during radiotherapy decision-making.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation, innate immune activation, T-cell imbalance and endothelial activation have been linked with lung diseases. We sought to determine whether markers of these pathophysiologic pathways were associated with spirometry and chest CT abnormalities among adolescents living with HIV (ALWH). SETTING: Coptic Hope Center for Infectious Diseases in Nairobi, Kenya METHODS:: We performed a cross-sectional study of ALWH (10-19 years old). Participants underwent chest CT, spirometry and venipuncture for serum biomarkers. We also collected demographic, anthropometric, T-cell subset, antiretroviral therapy, and exposure data. We compared characteristics and biomarkers by airflow obstruction (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC z-score [zFEV1/FVC] < -1.64). We used multivariable linear regression to determine associations of log10-transformed biomarkers and chest CT abnormalities with lower post-bronchodilator zFEV1/FVC (airflow limitation). We performed exploratory principal components analysis on biomarkers, and determined associations of factors with post-bronchodilator zFEV1/FVC and chest CT abnormalities. RESULTS: Of 47 participants with acceptable quality spirometry, 21 (45%) were female, median age was 13 years and 96% had perinatally-acquired HIV. Median CD4 was 672 cells/L. Overall, 28% had airflow obstruction and 78% had a chest CT abnormality; airflow obstruction was associated with mosaic attenuation (p=0.001). Higher endothelial activation (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1), inflammation and innate immune activation (SAA, sTREM-1, sCD163), and T-cell imbalance (lower CD4/CD8) markers were associated with airflow limitation. Factors comprising endothelial and innate immune activation were associated with airflow limitation. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial activation, innate immune activation, T-cell imbalance, and chronic inflammation are associated with airflow limitation and obstruction, providing insights into chronic lung disease pathophysiology among ALWH.
SULT2B1b (SULT2B) is a prostate-expressed hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase, which may regulate intracrine androgen homeostasis by mediating 3β-sulfation of DHEA, the precursor for DHT biosynthesis. The aldo-keto reductase AKR1C3 regulates androgen receptor (AR) activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) by promoting tumor-tissue androgen biosynthesis from adrenal DHEA and also by functioning as an AR-selective coactivator. Herein we report that SULT2B-depleted CRPC cells, arising from stable RNA interference or gene knockout, are markedly upregulated for AKR1C3, activated for ERK1/2 survival signal, and induced for epithelial-to-mesenchymal(EMT)-like changes. EMT was evident from increased mesenchymal proteins and elevated EMT-inducing transcription factors SNAI1 and TWIST1 in immunoblot and single-cell mass cytometry analyses. SULT2B-knockout cells showed greater motility and invasion in vitro; growth escalation in xenograft study; and enhanced metastatic potential predicted on the basis of decreased cell stiffness and adhesion revealed from atomic force microscopy analysis. While AR and androgen levels were unchanged, AR activity was elevated, since PSA and FKBP5 mRNA induction by DHT-activated AR was several-fold higher in SULT2B-silenced cells. AKR1C3 silencing prevented ERK1/2 activation and SNAI1 induction in SULT2B-depleted cells. SULT2B was undetectable in nearly all CRPC metastases from fifty autopsy cases. Primary tumors showed variable and Gleason score independent SULT2B levels. CRPC metastases lacking SULT2B expressed AKR1C3. Since AKR1C3 is frequently elevated in advanced prostate cancer, the inhibitory influence of SULT2B on AKR1C3 upregulation, ERK1/2 activation, EMT-like induction and on cell motility and invasiveness may be clinically significant. Pathways regulating the inhibitory SULT2B-AKR1C3 axis may inform new avenue(s) for targeting SULT2B-deficient prostate cancer.
Importance: Advances in childhood and adolescent cancer treatment have been associated with increased rates of cure during the past 3 decades; however, improvement in adult life expectancy for these individuals has not yet been reported. Objectives: To project long-term survival and assess whether life expectancy will improve among adult survivors of childhood cancer who were treated in more recent decades. Design, Setting, and Participants: A microsimulation model of competing mortality risks was developed using data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study on 5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed between 1970 and 1999. The model included (1) late recurrence, (2) treatment-related late effects (health-related [subsequent cancers, cardiac events, pulmonary conditions, and other] and external causes), and (3) US background mortality rates. Exposures: Treatment subgroups (no treatment or surgery only, chemotherapy alone, radiotherapy alone, and radiotherapy with chemotherapy) and individuals with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during childhood by era (1970-1979, 1980-1989, and 1990-1999). Main Outcomes and Measures: Conditional life expectancy (defined as the number of years a 5-year survivor can expect to live), cumulative cause-specific mortality risk, and 10-year mortality risks conditional on attaining ages of 30, 40, 50, and 60 years. Results: Among the hypothetical cohort of 5-year survivors of childhood cancer representative of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study participants (44% female and 56% male; mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 7.3 [5.6] years), conditional life expectancy was 48.5 years (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 47.6-49.6 years) for 5-year survivors diagnosed in 1970-1979, 53.7 years (95% UI, 52.6-54.7 years) for those diagnosed in 1980-1989, and 57.1 years (95% UI, 55.9-58.1 years) for those diagnosed in 1990-1999. Compared with individuals without a history of cancer, these results represented a gap in life expectancy of 25% (95% UI, 24%-27%) (16.5 years [95% UI, 15.5-17.5 years]) for those diagnosed in 1970-1979, 19% (95% UI, 17%-20%) (12.3 years [95% UI, 11.3-13.4 years]) for those diagnosed in 1980-1989, and 14% (95% UI, 13%-16%) (9.2 years [95% UI, 8.3-10.4 years]) for those diagnosed in 1990-1999. During the 3 decades, the proportion of survivors treated with chemotherapy alone increased (from 18% in 1970-1979 to 54% in 1990-1999), and the life expectancy gap in this chemotherapy-alone group decreased from 11.0 years (95% UI, 9.0-13.1 years) to 6.0 years (95% UI, 4.5-7.6 years). In contrast, during the same time frame, only modest improvements in the gap in life expectancy were projected for survivors treated with radiotherapy (21.0 years [95% UI, 18.5-23.2 years] to 17.6 years [95% UI, 14.2-21.2 years]) or with radiotherapy and chemotherapy (17.9 years [95% UI, 16.7-19.2 years] to 14.8 years [95% UI, 13.1-16.7 years]). For the largest group of survivors by diagnosis-those with acute lymphoblastic leukemia-the gap in life expectancy decreased from 14.7 years (95% UI, 12.8-16.5 years) in 1970-1979 to 8.0 years (95% UI, 6.2-9.7 years). Conclusions and Relevance: Evolving treatment approaches are projected to be associated with improved life expectancy after treatment for pediatric cancer, in particular among those who received chemotherapy alone for their childhood cancer diagnosis. Despite improvements, survivors remain at risk for shorter lifespans, especially when radiotherapy was included as part of their childhood cancer treatment.
Methods Mol Biol
Immunotherapy has become a prominent approach for the treatment of cancer. Targeted killing of malignant cells by adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells is a promising immunotherapy technique in oncology. However, the identification of cell surface antigens unique to tumor cells against which CAR T cells can be engineered has historically been challenging and not well documented in solid tumors. Here, we describe a generalized method to construct a cell subtype-specific surface antigen profile (i.e., surfaceome) from cell lines and identify high-confidence antigens as effective targets for CAR T cell therapy by integrating transcriptomics and cell surface proteomics. This method is widely applicable to all therapies utilizing CAR T cells, such as cancer, as well as infectious and autoimmune diseases.