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Last Modified, December 05, 2021
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Chromosome length and gene density contribute to micronuclear membrane stability

Life Sci Alliance

2022 Anna Mammel; Amanda Gunn; Emily Hatch

Micronuclei are derived from missegregated chromosomes and frequently lose membrane integrity, leading to DNA damage, innate immune activation, and metastatic signaling. Here, we demonstrate that two characteristics of the trapped chromosome, length and gene density, are key contributors to micronuclei membrane stability and determine the timing of micronucleus rupture. We demonstrate that these results are not due to chromosome-specific differences in spindle position or initial protein recruitment during post-mitotic nuclear envelope assembly. Micronucleus size strongly correlates with lamin B1 levels and nuclear pore density in intact micronuclei, but, unexpectedly, lamin B1 levels do not completely predict nuclear lamina organization or membrane stability. Instead, small gene-dense micronuclei have decreased nuclear lamina gaps compared to large micronuclei, despite very low levels of lamin B1. Our data strongly suggest that nuclear envelope composition defects previously correlated with membrane rupture only partly explain membrane stability in micronuclei. We propose that an unknown factor linked to gene density has a separate function that inhibits the appearance of nuclear lamina gaps and delays membrane rupture until late in the cell cycle.

HIV reservoir quantification by five-target multiplex droplet digital PCR

STAR Protoc

2021 Florian Hladik; Dara Lehman; Chelsea Amstuz; Keith Jerome

Most latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proviruses are defective and cannot produce infectious virions. Thus, the number of HIV proviruses with intact genomes is a relevant clinical parameter to assess therapies for HIV cure. We describe high-molecular-weight DNA isolation, followed by restriction enzyme fragmentation that limits cutting within the HIV genome. Multiplexed droplet digital PCR quantifies five targets spanning the HIV genome to estimate potentially intact proviral copies. A reference assay counts the number of T lymphocytes and assesses the level of DNA shearing. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Levy et al. (2021).

High-throughput single-cell epigenomic profiling by targeted insertion of promoters (TIP-seq)

J Cell Biol

2021 Steven Henikoff

Chromatin profiling in single cells has been extremely challenging and almost exclusively limited to histone proteins. In cases where single-cell methods have shown promise, many require highly specialized equipment or cell type-specific protocols and are relatively low throughput. Here, we combine the advantages of tagmentation, linear amplification, and combinatorial indexing to produce a high-throughput single-cell DNA binding site mapping method that is simple, inexpensive, and capable of multiplexing several independent samples per experiment. Targeted insertion of promoters sequencing (TIP-seq) uses Tn5 fused to proteinA to insert a T7 RNA polymerase promoter adjacent to a chromatin protein of interest. Linear amplification of flanking DNA with T7 polymerase before sequencing library preparation provides ∼10-fold higher unique reads per single cell compared with other methods. We applied TIP-seq to map histone modifications, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), and transcription factor CTCF binding sites in single human and mouse cells.

Kinetochore-bound Mps1 regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachments via Ndc80 phosphorylation

J Cell Biol

2021 Susan Biggins; Charles Asbury; Lori Koch; Christian Nelson

Dividing cells detect and correct erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments during mitosis, thereby avoiding chromosome missegregation. The Aurora B kinase phosphorylates microtubule-binding elements specifically at incorrectly attached kinetochores, promoting their release and providing another chance for proper attachments to form. However, growing evidence suggests that the Mps1 kinase is also required for error correction. Here we directly examine how Mps1 activity affects kinetochore-microtubule attachments using a reconstitution-based approach that allows us to separate its effects from Aurora B activity. When endogenous Mps1 that copurifies with kinetochores is activated in vitro, it weakens their attachments to microtubules via phosphorylation of Ndc80, a major microtubule-binding protein. This phosphorylation contributes to error correction because phospho-deficient Ndc80 mutants exhibit genetic interactions and segregation defects when combined with mutants in other error correction pathways. In addition, Mps1 phosphorylation of Ndc80 is stimulated on kinetochores lacking tension. These data suggest that Mps1 provides an additional mechanism for correcting erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments, complementing the well-known activity of Aurora B.

Integration features of intact latent HIV-1 in CD4(+) T cell clones contribute to viral persistence

J Exp Med

2021 Lillian Cohn

Latent intact HIV-1 proviruses persist in a small subset of long-lived CD4+ T cells that can undergo clonal expansion in vivo. Expanded clones of CD4+ T cells dominate latent reservoirs in individuals on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and represent a major barrier to HIV-1 cure. To determine how integration landscape might contribute to latency, we analyzed integration sites of near full length HIV-1 genomes from individuals on long-term ART, focusing on individuals whose reservoirs are highly clonal. We find that intact proviruses in expanded CD4+ T cell clones are preferentially integrated within Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain-containing zinc finger (ZNF) genes. ZNF genes are associated with heterochromatin in memory CD4+ T cells; nevertheless, they are expressed in these cells under steady-state conditions. In contrast to genes carrying unique integrations, ZNF genes carrying clonal intact integrations are down-regulated upon cellular activation. Together, the data suggest selected genomic sites, including ZNF genes, can be especially permissive for maintaining HIV-1 latency during memory CD4+ T cell expansion.

Systemic delivery of a DUX4-targeting antisense oligonucleotide to treat facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids

2021 Stephen Tapscott

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most prevalent skeletal muscle dystrophies. Skeletal muscle pathology in individuals with FSHD is caused by inappropriate expression of the transcription factor DUX4, which activates different myotoxic pathways. At the moment there is no molecular therapy that can delay or prevent skeletal muscle wasting in FSHD. In this study, a systemically delivered antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting the DUX4 transcript was tested in vivo in ACTA1-MCM;FLExDUX4 mice that express DUX4 in skeletal muscles. We show that the DUX4 ASO was well tolerated and repressed the DUX4 transcript, DUX4 protein, and mouse DUX4 target gene expression in skeletal muscles. In addition, the DUX4 ASO alleviated the severity of skeletal muscle pathology and partially prevented the dysregulation of inflammatory and extracellular matrix genes. DUX4 ASO-treated ACTA1-MCM;FLExDUX4 mice performed better on a treadmill; however, the hanging grid and four-limb grip strength tests were not improved compared to control ASO-treated ACTA1-MCM;FLExDUX4 mice. This study shows that systemic delivery of ASOs targeting DUX4 is a promising therapeutic strategy for FSHD and strategies that further improve the ASO efficacy in skeletal muscle are warranted.

Advancing diversity: the role of international medical graduates

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol

2021 Rachel Issaka

N/A

Epstein-Barr virus posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder: update on management and outcomes

Curr Opin Infect Dis

2021 Julian Lindsay; Madeleine Heldman

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Management of Epstein-Barr virus posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV PTLD) is complex, involving risk stratification, prevention and/or preemptive measures involving monitoring EBV DNAemia and balancing treatment options, using a combination of reduction of immune suppression, anti-B cell therapy, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). RECENT FINDINGS: The highest risk factor for the development of EBV PTLD in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) remains T cell depletion, with increasing use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or alemtuzumab in conditioning. In solid organ transplantation (SOT), the incidence of PTLD is highest among EBV seronegative recipients who are at risk for primary EBV infection following transplant in the first 12months. Prevention is a critical component of the management of EBV PTLD. Although preemptive therapy remains standard of care, there continues to be heterogenicity and debate over the optimal choice of EBV DNA quantification and the threshold to use. Novel therapies such as donor-derived multipathogen and EBV specific CTLs for the prevention and third party CTLs for the treatment of EBV PTLD are promising, with rapidly expanding evidence, including large scale Phase III trials currently underway. SUMMARY: With an increasing number of risk groups for developing EBV PTLD in HCT and SOT, management strategies using prophylaxis or preemptive therapy remain standard of care, however the use of prophylactic or preemptive EBV specific or multipathogen CTLs show promising results and safety profiles.

Integration of pre-exposure prophylaxis services into public HIV care clinics in Kenya: a pragmatic stepped-wedge randomised trial

Lancet Glob Health

2021 Deborah Donnell; Nelly Mugo

BACKGROUND: Successful and sustainable models for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) delivery in public health systems in Africa are needed. We aimed to evaluate the implementation of PrEP delivery integrated in public HIV care clinics in Kenya. METHODS: As part of Kenya's national PrEP roll-out, we conducted a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised pragmatic trial to catalyse scale-up of PrEP delivery integrated in 25 public HIV care clinics. We selected high-volume clinics in these regions (ie, those with a high number of people living with HIV enrolled in HIV care and treatment). Clinics (each representing a cluster) were stratified by region and randomly assigned to the order in which clinic staff would receive PrEP training and ongoing technical support using numbered opaque balls picked from a bag. There was no masking. PrEP provision was done by clinic staff without additional financial support. Data were abstracted from records of individuals initiating PrEP. The primary outcome was the number of people initiating PrEP per clinic per month comparing intervention to control periods. Other outcomes included PrEP continuation, adherence, and incident HIV infections. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03052010. FINDINGS: After the baseline period, which started in January, 2017, every month two to six HIV care clinics crossed over from control to intervention, until August, 2017, when all clinics were implementing the intervention. Of 4898 individuals initiating PrEP (27 during the control period and 4871 during the intervention period), 2640 (54%) were women, the median age was 31 years (IQR 25-39), and 4092 (84%) reported having a partner living with HIV. The mean monthly number of PrEP initiations per clinic was 01 (SD 05) before the intervention and 75 (27) after intervention introduction (rate ratio 237, 95% CI 142-395, p<00001). PrEP continuation was 57% at 1 month, 44% at 3 months, and 34% at 6 months, and 12% of those who missed a refill returned later for PrEP re-initiation. Tenofovir diphosphate was detected in 68 (96%) of 71 blood samples collected from a randomly selected subset of participants. Six HIV infections were observed over 2531 person-years of observation (incidence 024 cases per 100 person-years), three of which occurred at the first visit after PrEP initiation. INTERPRETATION: We observed high uptake, reasonable continuation with high adherence, frequent PrEP restarts, and low HIV incidence. Integration of PrEP services within public HIV care clinics in Africa is feasible. FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Brief Training and Intensive Mentoring Guide Postdoctoral Scholars to Student-Centered Instruction

CBE Life Sci Educ

2021 William Young

The Science Teaching Experience Program-Working in Science Education (STEP-WISE) provides teaching experience for postdoctoral scholars holding full-time research appointments. Through a combination of mentorship, deliberate practice, and feedback, the postdocs learn and apply inclusive, evidence-based pedagogies. STEP-WISE is integrated into postdocs' demanding schedules and is sustainable for institutions to run. Here, we assess the effectiveness of STEP-WISE. We used the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM instruction to quantify instructor and student behaviors in 20 STEP-WISE class sessions from seven courses designed and taught by postdocs in the program. We found that all of the postdocs used student-centered teaching strategies. Also, using a design-based research framework, we studied the program to identify the salient components of its design. Four interconnected key elements contribute to the program's success: 1) two training sessions, 2) a precourse meeting with the mentor, 3) implementation of active-learning strategies with support, and 4) debriefing with the mentor after each class session. STEP-WISE is a replicable model to support postdocs seeking training and experience in evidence-based teaching practices geared to improving undergraduate education and transforming pedagogical practice. We conclude that high-impact teaching can be learned early in a career with streamlined training and intensive mentoring.

Last Modified, February 20, 2020