The New England journal of medicine
BACKGROUND: A universal testing and treatment strategy is a potential approach to reduce the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, yet previous trial results are inconsistent. METHODS: In the HPTN 071 (PopART) community-randomized trial conducted from 2013 through 2018, we randomly assigned 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa (total population, approximately 1 million) to group A (combination prevention intervention with universal antiretroviral therapy [ART]), group B (the prevention intervention with ART provided according to local guidelines [universal since 2016]), or group C (standard care). The prevention intervention included home-based HIV testing delivered by community workers, who also supported linkage to HIV care and ART adherence. The primary outcome, HIV incidence between months 12 and 36, was measured in a population cohort of approximately 2000 randomly sampled adults (18 to 44 years of age) per community. Viral suppression (<400 copies of HIV RNA per milliliter) was assessed in all HIV-positive participants at 24 months. RESULTS: The population cohort included 48,301 participants. Baseline HIV prevalence was 21% or 22% in each group. Between months 12 and 36, a total of 553 new HIV infections were observed during 39,702 person-years (1.4 per 100 person-years; women, 1.7; men, 0.8). The adjusted rate ratio for group A as compared with group C was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.18; P = 0.51) and for group B as compared with group C was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.88; P = 0.006). The percentage of HIV-positive participants with viral suppression at 24 months was 71.9% in group A, 67.5% in group B, and 60.2% in group C. The estimated percentage of HIV-positive adults in the community who were receiving ART at 36 months was 81% in group A and 80% in group B. CONCLUSIONS: A combination prevention intervention with ART provided according to local guidelines resulted in a 30% lower incidence of HIV infection than standard care. The lack of effect with universal ART was unanticipated and not consistent with the data on viral suppression. In this trial setting, universal testing and treatment reduced the population-level incidence of HIV infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; HPTN 071 [PopArt] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01900977.).
Sci Transl Med
Previous studies have established that strain 68-1-derived rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) proteins (RhCMV/SIV) are able to elicit and maintain cellular immune responses that provide protection against mucosal challenge of highly pathogenic SIV in rhesus monkeys (RMs). However, these efficacious RhCMV/SIV vectors were replication and spread competent and therefore have the potential to cause disease in immunocompromised subjects. To develop a safer CMV-based vaccine for clinical use, we attenuated 68-1 RhCMV/SIV vectors by deletion of the Rh110 gene encoding the pp71 tegument protein (DeltaRh110), allowing for suppression of lytic gene expression. DeltaRh110 RhCMV/SIV vectors are highly spread deficient in vivo (~1000-fold compared to the parent vector) yet are still able to superinfect RhCMV(+) RMs and generate high-frequency effector-memory-biased T cell responses. Here, we demonstrate that DeltaRh110 68-1 RhCMV/SIV-expressing homologous or heterologous SIV antigens are highly efficacious against intravaginal (IVag) SIVmac239 challenge, providing control and progressive clearance of SIV infection in 59% of vaccinated RMs. Moreover, among 12 DeltaRh110 RhCMV/SIV-vaccinated RMs that controlled and progressively cleared an initial SIV challenge, 9 were able to stringently control a second SIV challenge ~3 years after last vaccination, demonstrating the durability of this vaccine. Thus, DeltaRh110 RhCMV/SIV vectors have a safety and efficacy profile that warrants adaptation and clinical evaluation of corresponding HCMV vectors as a prophylactic HIV/AIDS vaccine.
The Antibody Mediated Prevention efficacy trials are the first studies to evaluate whether passive administration of a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody can prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. The trials randomize 4600 HIV-negative volunteers to receive 10 infusions of the monoclonal antibody VRC01 or placebo. The primary objective compares the incidence of HIV infection between the study groups. The secondary objective assesses whether and how a marker defined as the serum concentration of VRC01 over time associates with the instantaneous rate of HIV infection, using a two-phase sampling design, a pharmacokinetic model for the time-concentration curve, and an estimator of HIV infection times. While a Cox model with a time-dependent covariate constitutes an important approach to this problem, the low interindividual versus intraindividual marker variability limits its power, motivating us to develop two alternative methods that condition on outcome status: (1) an indirect method that checks whether HIV-infected cases have unexpectedly long times from the most recent infusion to the estimated infection date and (2) a direct method that checks whether the marker itself is unexpectedly low at estimated infection dates. In simulations and a pseudo Antibody Mediated Prevention application, we find that method (2) (but not (1)) has greater power than the Cox model. We also find that the quality of the infection time estimator majorly impacts method performance, and thus, incorporating details of an optimized estimator is critical. The methods apply more generally for assessing a time-dependent longitudinal marker as a correlate of risk when the marker trajectory is modeled pharmacokinetically.
J Viral Hepat
Mortality from Cytomegalovirus disease after marrow transplantation can be reduced by treatment with anti-viral drugs based on detection of viremia and organ involvement. We examined autopsy liver specimens to determine the frequency, extent, and outcome of cytomegalovirus hepatitis and whether cytomegalovirus hepatitis occurred in the absence of cytomegalovirus disease elsewhere. Autopsy specimens from 50 transplant patients were evaluated for cytomegalovirus-infected cells, in five groups of 10, according to extent of CMV during life and at autopsy. Liver sections were examined by routine light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ DNA hybridization. Clinical and laboratory data collected during the last 30 days of life were analyzed as markers of liver cytomegalovirus infection. Cytomegalovirus-infected cells were detected in the livers of 10/10 patients with cytomegalovirus infection during life and wide-spread cytomegalovirus at autopsy; in 3/20 livers from patients with cytomegalovirus infection during life but negative liver cultures at autopsy; and in 1/10 livers from cytomegalovirus-seropositive patients who had been without other evidence of cytomegalovirus infection. Histology detected a lower density of cytomegalovirus-bearing cells per unit area of liver, compared to immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridiation. No cytomegalovirus-infected cells were detected in livers from cytomegalovirus-seronegative controls. No distinctive clinical or laboratory findings correlated with liver cytomegalovirus detection. CMV liver disease is common in allografted patients with disseminated CMV but may rarely be isolated to the liver, best demonstrated with IHC and ISH. Massive hepatic necrosis from CMV was not seen in any autopsy liver in this study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND: Outcomes for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) who fail to achieve complete response (CR) or relapse after front-line therapy are poor with lack of prospective outcomes data. OBJECTIVES: COMPLETE is a prospective registry of 499 patients enrolled at academic and community sites in the United States detailing patient demographics, treatment and outcomes for patients with aggressive T cell lymphomas. We report results for patients with primary refractory and relapsed disease. METHODS: Primary refractory disease was defined as an evaluable best response to initial treatment (induction +/- maintenance or consolidation/transplant) other than CR, and included a partial response, progressive disease, or no response/stable disease. Relapsed disease was defined as an evaluable best response to initial treatment of CR, followed by disease progression at a later date, irrespective of time to progression. Patients were included in the analysis if initial treatment began within 30 days of enrollment and treatment duration was >/=4 days. RESULTS: Of 420 evaluable patients, 97 met the definition for primary refractory and 58 with relapsed disease. In the second-line setting, relapsed patients received single-agent therapies more often than refractory patients (52 vs. 28%; p = 0.01) and were more likely to receive single-agent regimens (74 vs. 53%; p = 0.03). The objective response rate to second-line therapy was higher in relapsed patients (61 vs. 40%; p = 0.04) as was the proportion achieving a CR (41 vs. 14%; p = 0.002). Further, relapsed patients had longer overall survival (OS) compared to refractory patients, with a median OS of 29.1 versus 12.3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of newer active single agents, refractory patients were less likely to receive these therapies and continue to have inferior outcomes compared to those with relapsed disease. PTCL in the real world remains an unmet medical need, and improvements in front-line therapies are needed.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
BACKGROUND: An inventory of cancer survivorship cohorts is necessary to identify important gaps in what is being studied among cancer survivors. METHODS: We conducted an environmental scan of cancer survivor cohorts, to determine the scope and scale of information collected on demographic, biopsychosocial, and selected clinical variables from cancer survivors. Cohorts were eligible for inclusion in the environmental scan if the study was conducted in the United States, reported in English, and consisted of data collected from cancer survivors post-diagnosis and followed for at least one year. RESULTS: Out of the 131 cohorts identified, 62 were eligible. There were 23 cancer sites represented and more than half of the studies included breast cancer survivors (n=34). The next most commonly included cancers were leukemia (n=22) and lymphoma (n=23). The majority (n=59) collected information on clinical characteristics and basic diagnostic information, patient demographic characteristics (n=57), patient-reported symptoms (n=44), lifestyle (n=45), and psychological (n=42) characteristics. Half collected biospecimens (n=35) and biomarkers (n=35); fewer collected CAM use (n=19) and social characteristics (n=27). CONCLUSIONS: Extensive data are available in cancer cohorts to study important questions relevant to cancer survivors. Cohorts should consider collecting information on social and environmental factors, as well as biospecimen collection and biomarker analyses, and should include survivors from cancer sites less likely to be studied. IMPACT: This information can assist researchers in understanding the types of information currently being gathered from cancer survivors for further analysis and identify areas where more research is needed.
Sci Transl Med
Rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV)-based vaccines maintain effector memory T cell responses (TEM) that protect ~50% of rhesus monkeys (RMs) challenged with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Because human CMV (HCMV) causes disease in immunodeficient subjects, clinical translation will depend upon attenuation strategies that reduce pathogenic potential without sacrificing CMV's unique immunological properties. We demonstrate that "intrinsic" immunity can be used to attenuate strain 68-1 RhCMV vectors without impairment of immunogenicity. The tegument proteins pp71 and UL35 encoded by UL82 and UL35 of HCMV counteract cell-intrinsic restriction via degradation of host transcriptional repressors. When the corresponding RhCMV genes, Rh110 and Rh59, were deleted from 68-1 RhCMV (DeltaRh110 and DeltaRh59), we observed only a modest growth defect in vitro, but in vivo, these modified vectors manifested little to no amplification at the injection site and dissemination to distant sites, in contrast to parental 68-1 RhCMV. DeltaRh110 was not shed at any time after infection and was not transmitted to naive hosts either by close contact (mother to infant) or by leukocyte transfusion. In contrast, DeltaRh59 was both shed and transmitted by leukocyte transfusion, indicating less effective attenuation than pp71 deletion. The T cell immunogenicity of DeltaRh110 was essentially identical to 68-1 RhCMV with respect to magnitude, TEM phenotype, epitope targeting, and durability. Thus, pp71 deletion preserves CMV vector immunogenicity while stringently limiting vector spread, making pp71 deletion an attractive attenuation strategy for HCMV vectors.
OBJECTIVE: Observational studies have associated use of intramuscular injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM) with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition, but limited data are available to assess HIV-1 risk for alternate contraceptive methods. METHODS: Within a randomized trial of the dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention, we assessed HIV-1 incidence by contraceptive method. We limited analyses to participants from South African sites and to women who used DMPA-IM, the alternative injectable norethisterone enanthate, implants, or copper intrauterine devices (IUDs). Contraceptive method was assessed as a time-dependent exposure and multivariate models adjusted for trial randomization arm, age, sexual behaviour, and incident sexually transmitted infections. RESULTS: A total of 95 incident HIV-1 infections were observed: incidence 5.8 (DMPA-IM, n = 52), 6.2 (norethisterone enanthate, n = 28), 1.9 (implant, n = 3), and 4.5 (IUD, n = 12) cases per 100 woman-years. In multivariable models, there were no statistically significant differences between contraceptive methods in the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. However, compared with the IUD, the three hormonal methods each had point estimates near 1 while the implant had risk that was approximately half that of the IUD. When the three hormonal methods were combined, their relative risk compared with IUD was 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.45-1.76). CONCLUSION: Among women at risk of HIV-1 infections in South Africa, we found no statistically significant differences in HIV-1 incidence by contraceptive method. Implants had the lowest point estimate for HIV-1 incidence, and IUDs had risk comparable with injectable methods in multivariate models. Large, prospective studies are needed to define better the relative HIV-1 risks across different contraceptive methods.
The immune system of the cervicovaginal tract (CVT) must balance immunosurveillance and active immunity against pathogens with maintenance of tolerance to resident microbiota and to fetal and partner antigens for reproductive purposes. Thus, we predicted that CVT immunity is characterized by distinctive features compared to blood and other tissue compartments. Indeed, we found that CVT CD8+ T-cells had unique transcriptional profiles, particularly in their cytokine signature, compared to that reported for CD8+ T-cells in other tissue sites. Among these CVT CD8+ T-cells, we identified a CD69- CD103- subset that was characterized by reduced migration in response to tissue-exit signals and higher pro-inflammatory potential as compared to their blood counterpart. These inflammatory mucosal CD8+ T-cells (Tim) were increased in frequency in the CVT of individuals with chronic infection, pointing to a potential role in perpetuating inflammation. Our findings highlight the specialized nature of immunity within the CVT and identify Tim cells as potential therapeutic targets to tame tissue inflammation upon chronic infection.