Human Biology Publications

Search and Filter
Results per Page:
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100

Identification of Cell Surface Targets for CAR T Cell Immunotherapy

Methods Mol Biol

2020 Lee, John K; DeLucia, Diana Campbell

Immunotherapy has become a prominent approach for the treatment of cancer. Targeted killing of malignant cells by adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells is a promising immunotherapy technique in oncology. However, the identification of cell surface antigens unique to tumor cells against which CAR T cells can be engineered has historically been challenging and not well documented in solid tumors. Here, we describe a generalized method to construct a cell subtype-specific surface antigen profile (i.e., surfaceome) from cell lines and identify high-confidence antigens as effective targets for CAR T cell therapy by integrating transcriptomics and cell surface proteomics. This method is widely applicable to all therapies utilizing CAR T cells, such as cancer, as well as infectious and autoimmune diseases.

Identification of Antibodies Targeting the H3N2 Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding Site following Vaccination of Humans

Cell Rep

2019 Lee, Juhye M; Bloom, Jesse D

Antibodies targeting the receptor binding site (RBS) of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein are usually not broadly reactive because their footprints are typically large and extend to nearby variable HA residues. Here, we identify several human H3N2 HA RBS-targeting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are sensitive to substitutions in conventional antigenic sites and are therefore not broadly reactive. However, we also identify an H3N2 HA RBS-targeting mAb that is exceptionally broadly reactive despite being sensitive to substitutions in residues outside of the RBS. We show that similar antibodies are present at measurable levels in the sera of some individuals but that they are inefficiently elicited by conventional vaccines. Our data indicate that HA RBS-targeting antibodies can be effective against variable viral strains even when they are somewhat sensitive to substitutions in HA residues adjacent to the RBS.

Long-term tracking demonstrates effectiveness of a partnership-led training program to advance the careers of biomedical researchers from underrepresented groups

PLoS One

2019 Simon, Julian A; Drennan, Marilyn N; Peterson, Karen R; Holte, Sarah E; Thompson, Engelberta

The demographic profile of the biomedical workforce in the U.S. does not reflect the population at large, raising concerns that there will be insufficient trained researchers in the future, and the scope of research interests will not be sufficiently broad. To diversify and expand the pool of researchers trained to conduct research on cancer and cancer health disparities, a series of training activities to recruit and train primarily Hispanic students at both the undergraduate and graduate level were developed. The strengths of both a Hispanic Serving Institution and an NIH-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center were leveraged to develop appropriate research training and professional development activities. The career progression of the participants and degree completion rates was tracked, along with persistent interest in biomedical research in general and cancer and cancer health disparities research in particular for these underrepresented individuals. Finally, this report demonstrates that these training activities increased general knowledge about cancer among participants.

Structural Basis for a Species-Specific Determinant of an SIV Vif Protein toward Hominid APOBEC3G Antagonism

Cell Host Microbe

2019 Emerman, Michael; Chesarino, Nicholas Michael

Primate lentiviruses encode a Vif protein that counteracts the host antiviral APOBEC3 (A3) family members. The adaptation of Vif to species-specific A3 determinants is a critical event that allowed the spillover of a lentivirus from monkey reservoirs to chimpanzees and subsequently to humans, which gave rise to HIV-1 and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. How Vif-A3 protein interactions are remodeled during evolution is unclear. Here, we report a 2.94 Å crystal structure of the Vif substrate receptor complex from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from red-capped mangabey (SIVrcm). The structure of the SIVrcm Vif complex illuminates the stage of lentiviral Vif evolution that is immediately prior to entering hominid primates. Structure-function studies reveal the adaptations that allowed SIVrcm Vif to antagonize hominid A3G. These studies show a partitioning between an evolutionarily dynamic specificity determinant and a conserved protein interacting surface on Vif that enables adaptation while maintaining protein interactions required for potent A3 antagonism.

Identification of Cell Surface Targets for CAR T Cell Immunotherapy

Methods Mol Biol

2020

Immunotherapy has become a prominent approach for the treatment of cancer. Targeted killing of malignant cells by adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells is a promising immunotherapy technique in oncology. However, the identification of cell surface antigens unique to tumor cells against which CAR T cells can be engineered has historically been challenging and not well documented in solid tumors. Here, we describe a generalized method to construct a cell subtype-specific surface antigen profile (i.e., surfaceome) from cell lines and identify high-confidence antigens as effective targets for CAR T cell therapy by integrating transcriptomics and cell surface proteomics. This method is widely applicable to all therapies utilizing CAR T cells, such as cancer, as well as infectious and autoimmune diseases.

Intronic SMCHD1 variants in FSHD: testing the potential for CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing

J Med Genet

2019 Tapscott, Stephen J

BACKGROUND: Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is associated with partial chromatin relaxation of the DUX4 retrogene containing D4Z4 macrosatellite repeats on chromosome 4, and transcriptional de-repression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle. The common form of FSHD, FSHD1, is caused by a D4Z4 repeat array contraction. The less common form, FSHD2, is generally caused by heterozygous variants in SMCHD1. METHODS: We employed whole exome sequencing combined with Sanger sequencing to screen uncharacterised FSHD2 patients for extra-exonic SMCHD1 mutations. We also used CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to repair a pathogenic intronic SMCHD1 variant from patient myoblasts. RESULTS: We identified intronic SMCHD1 variants in two FSHD families. In the first family, an intronic variant resulted in partial intron retention and inclusion of the distal 14 nucleotides of intron 13 into the transcript. In the second family, a deep intronic variant in intron 34 resulted in exonisation of 53 nucleotides of intron 34. In both families, the aberrant transcripts are predicted to be non-functional. Deleting the pseudo-exon by CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing in primary and immortalised myoblasts from the index case of the second family restored wild-type SMCHD1 expression to a level that resulted in efficient suppression of DUX4. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated intronic mutation frequency of almost 2% in FSHD2, as exemplified by the two novel intronic SMCHD1 variants identified here, emphasises the importance of screening for intronic variants in SMCHD1. Furthermore, the efficient suppression of DUX4 after restoring SMCHD1 levels by genome editing of the mutant allele provides further guidance for therapeutic strategies.

Kidney Cancer, Version 2.2020 Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

J Natl Compr Canc Netw

2019 Gore, John L

The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations for the clinical management of patients with clear cell and non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma, and are intended to assist with clinical decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel discussions for the 2020 update to the guidelines regarding initial management and first-line systemic therapy options for patients with advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

High information content assays for genetic toxicology testing: A report the International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT)

Mutat Res

2019 Bielas, Jason H

We live in an era of 'big data', where the volume, velocity, and variety of the data being generated is increasingly influencing the way toxicological sciences are practiced. With this in mind, a workgroup was formed for the 2017 International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) to consider the use of high information content data in genetic toxicology assessments. Presentations were given on adductomics, global transcriptional profiling, error-reduced single-molecule sequencing, and cellular phenotype-based assays, which were identified as methodologies that are relevant to present-day genetic toxicology assessments. Presenters and workgroup members discussed the state of the science for these methodologies, their potential use in genetic toxicology, current limitations, and the future work necessary to advance their utility and application. The session culminated with audience-assisted SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats) analyses. The summary report described herein is structured similarly. A major conclusion of the workgroup is that while conventional regulatory genetic toxicology testing has served the public well over the last several decades, it does not provide the throughput that has become necessary in modern times, and it does not generate the mechanistic information that risk assessments ideally take into consideration. The high information content assay platforms that were discussed in this session, as well as others under development, have the potential to address aspect(s) of these issues and to meet new expectations in the field of genetic toxicology.

Schistosomiasis was not associated with higher HIV-1 plasma or genital set point viral loads among HIV seroconverters from four cohort studies

PLoS Negl Trop Dis

2019 Overbaugh, Julie M; Barnabas, Ruanne; Mugo, Nelly

BACKGROUND: Many regions of sub-Saharan Africa experience a high prevalence of both schistosomiasis and HIV-1, leading to frequent coinfection. Higher plasma HIV-1 viral loads are associated with faster disease progression and genital HIV-1 loads are a primary determinant of HIV-1 transmission risk. We hypothesized that schistosome infection would be associated with higher HIV-1 viral loads in plasma and genital samples. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized data from individuals who HIV-1 seroconverted while enrolled in one of four prospective cohort studies. Plasma and genital viral loads collected 4-24 months after the estimated date of HIV-1 acquisition, but prior to antiretroviral therapy initiation, were included. Detection of circulating anodic antigen in archived blood samples, collected prior to HIV-1 seroconversion, identified participants with active schistosomiasis; immunoblots determined the schistosome species causing infection. Our analysis included 370 HIV-1 seroconverters with plasma viral load results, of whom 82 (22%) had schistosomiasis. We did not find a statistically significant association between schistosomiasis and higher HIV-1 set point plasma viral loads (-0.17 log10 copies/ml, 95% CI -0.38 to 0.03); S. mansoni infection was associated with a lower set point (-0.34 log10 copies/ml, 95% CI -0.58 to -0.09). We found no association between schistosomiasis and cervical (+0.07 log10 copies/swab, 95% CI -0.20 to 0.34) or vaginal (+0.11 log10 copies/swab, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.39) set point viral loads; S. haematobium infection was associated with lower cervical viral loads (-0.59 log10 copies/swab, 95% CI -1.11 to -0.06). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results do not support the hypotheses that schistosome coinfection increases plasma or genital HIV-1 viral loads.

Female breast cancer risk in Bryansk Oblast, Russia, following prolonged low dose rate exposure to radiation from the Chernobyl power station accident

Int J Epidemiol

2019 Porter, Peggy L; Davis, Scott; Guenthoer, Jamie; Kopecky, Kenneth J; Onstad, Lynn E

BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation is a known cause of female breast cancer, but there have been few studies of the risk after prolonged radiation exposure at low dose rates. METHODS: This population-based case-control study estimated breast cancer risk after 25 years' exposure to radiation from the Chernobyl accident. Cases (n=468) were women 55years old when first diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during October 2008 through February 2013, who lived in Bryansk Oblast, Russia at the time of the accident and their diagnoses. Controls, individually matched to cases on birth year, administrative district of residence and urban vs non-urban settlement during the accident, were women without breast cancer who lived in Bryansk Oblast at the time of the accident and on their cases' diagnosis dates (n=468). Subjects were interviewed regarding residence, dietary and food source histories to support individualized estimation of their radiation doses to the breast, which ranged from 0.04-41 centigray (cGy) (mean 1.3cGy). RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, the odds ratio for breast cancer risk was 3.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 7.0] and 2.7 (95% CI: 1.0, 7.3) in the seventh and eighth dose octiles, respectively, relative to the lowest octile. Analyses of dose effect modification suggested that radiation-related risk may have been higher in women who were younger at the time of the accident and/or at the time of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation at low dose rates can increase risk of breast cancer.