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Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI features correlate with invasive breast cancer angiogenesis

NPJ Breast Cancer

2021 Savannah Partridge; Kevin Cheung; Habib Rahbar

Angiogenesis is a critical component of breast cancer development, and identification of imaging-based angiogenesis assays has prognostic and treatment implications. We evaluated the association of semi-quantitative kinetic and radiomic breast cancer features on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI with microvessel density (MVD), a marker for angiogenesis. Invasive breast cancer kinetic features (initial peak percent enhancement [PE], signal enhancement ratio [SER], functional tumor volume [FTV], and washout fraction [WF]), radiomics features (108 total features reflecting tumor morphology, signal intensity, and texture), and MVD (by histologic CD31 immunostaining) were measured in 27 patients (1/2016-7/2017). Lesions with high MVD levels demonstrated higher peak SER than lesions with low MVD (mean: 1.94 vs. 1.61, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.79, p = 0.009) and higher WF (mean: 50.6% vs. 22.5%, AUC = 0.87, p = 0.001). Several radiomics texture features were also promising for predicting increased MVD (maximum AUC = 0.84, p = 0.002). Our study suggests DCE-MRI can non-invasively assess breast cancer angiogenesis, which could stratify biology and optimize treatments.

Derivation of an HIV Risk Score for African Women Who Engage in Sex Work

AIDS Behav

2021 Julie Overbaugh; Barbra Richardson

No tool exists to stratify HIV risk in contemporary African female sex worker (FSW) populations. Data from a cohort of HIV-negative FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya from 2010 to 2017 were used to conduct a survival analysis assessing predictors of HIV infection. Stepwise regression was used to construct a multivariable model that formed the basis for the score. Seventeen HIV infections occurred over 1247 person-years of follow-up contributed by 670 women. Using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), having a curable sexually transmitted infection (STI), and being married contributed points to the score. HIV incidence was 0.85/100 person-years in a lower-risk group and 3.10/100 person-years in a higher-risk group. In a cohort with overall HIV incidence < 1.50/100 person-years, this risk score identified a subgroup of FSWs with HIV incidence > 3.00/100 person-years, which is the threshold used by the World Health Organization for initiating pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). If validated in an external population, this tool could be useful for targeted PrEP promotion among higher-risk FSWs.

Phase 2 multicenter study of enzalutamide in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer to identify mechanisms driving resistance

Clin Cancer Res

2021 Robert Montgomery; Peter Nelson; Evan Yu

PURPOSE: Enzalutamide is a second-generation androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor which has improved overall survival (OS) in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, nearly all patients develop resistance. We designed a phase 2 multicenter study of enzalutamide in metastatic CRPC incorporating tissue and blood biomarkers to dissect mechanisms driving resistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eligible patients with metastatic CRPC underwent a baseline metastasis biopsy and then initiated enzalutamide 160 mg daily. A repeat metastasis biopsy was obtained at radiographic progression from the same site when possible. Blood for circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis was collected at baseline and progression. The primary objective was to analyze mechanisms of resistance in serial biopsies. Whole exome sequencing was performed on tissue biopsies. CTC samples underwent RNA sequencing. RESULTS: 65 patients initiated treatment, of whom 22 (33.8%) had received prior abiraterone. Baseline biopsies were enriched for alterations in AR (mutations, amplifications) and tumor suppression genes (PTEN, RB1, and TP53) which were observed in 73.1% and 92.3% of baseline biopsies, respectively. Progression biopsies revealed increased AR amplifications (64.7% at progression versus 53.9% at baseline) and BRCA2 alterations (64.7% at progression versus 38.5% at baseline). Genomic analysis of baseline and progression CTC samples demonstrated increased AR splice variants, AR regulated-genes, and neuroendocrine markers at progression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that a large proportion of enzalutamide-treated patients have baseline and progression alterations in the AR pathway and tumor suppressor genes. We demonstrate an increased number of BRCA2 alterations post-enzalutamide highlighting importance of serial tumor sampling in CRPC.

Genome instability from nuclear catastrophe and DNA damage

Semin Cell Dev Biol

2021 Anna Mammel; Emily Hatch

The nuclear envelope compartmentalizes the eukaryotic genome, provides mechanical resistance, and regulates access to the chromatin. However, recent studies have identified several conditions where the nuclear membrane ruptures during interphase, breaking down this compartmentalization leading to DNA damage, chromothripsis, and kataegis. This review discusses three major circumstances that promote nuclear membrane rupture, nuclear deformation, chromatin bridges, and micronucleation, and how each of these nuclear catastrophes results in DNA damage. In addition, we highlight recent studies that demonstrate a single chromosome missegregation can initiate a cascade of events that lead to accumulating damage and even multiple rounds of chromothripsis.

MTOR regulates the pro-tumorigenic senescence-associated secretory phenotype by promoting IL1A translation (vol 17, pg 1049, 2015)

Nat Cell Biol

2021 Peter Nelson

N/A

Differential Substrate Use in EGF- and Oncogenic KRAS-Stimulated Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

FEBS J

2021 Lucas Sullivan

Many metabolic phenotypes in cancer cells are also characteristic of proliferating non-transformed mammalian cells, and attempts to distinguish between phenotypes resulting from oncogenic perturbation from those associated with increased proliferation are limited. Here, we examined the extent to which metabolic changes corresponding to oncogenic KRAS expression differed from those corresponding to epidermal growth factor (EGF)-driven proliferation in human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Removal of EGF from culture medium reduced growth rates and glucose/glutamine consumption in control HMECs despite limited changes in respiration and fatty acid synthesis, while the relative contribution of branched-chain amino acids to the TCA cycle and lipogenesis increased in the near-quiescent conditions. Most metabolic phenotypes measured in HMECs expressing mutant KRAS were similar to those observed in EGF-stimulated control HMECs that were growing at comparable rates. However, glucose and glutamine consumption as well as lactate and glutamate production were lower in KRAS-expressing cells cultured in media without added EGF, and these changes correlated with reduced sensitivity to GLUT1 inhibitor and phenformin treatment. Our results demonstrate the strong dependence of metabolic behavior on growth rate, and provide a model to distinguish the metabolic influences of oncogenic mutations and non-oncogenic growth.

The heterogeneity of prostate cancers lacking AR activity will require diverse treatment approaches

Endocr Relat Cancer

2021 Peter Nelson; Ilsa Coleman; Colm Morrissey

The use of androgen deprivation therapy and second line anti-androgens in prostate cancer has led to the emergence of tumors employing multiple androgen receptor (AR)-dependent and AR-independent mechanisms to resist AR targeted therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). While the AR signaling axis remains the cornerstone for therapeutic development in CRPC, a clearer understanding of the heterogeneous biology of CRPC tumors is needed for inno-vative treatment strategies. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of CRPC tumors that lack AR activity and the temporal and spatial considerations for the conversion of an AR-dependent to an AR-independent tumor type. We describe the more prevalent treatment-emergent phenotypes aris-ing in the CRPC disease continuum, including amphicrine, AR-low, double-negative, neuroendo-crine and small cell phenotypes. We discuss the association between the loss of AR activity and tumor plasticity with a focus on the roles of transcription factors like SOX2, DNA methylation, alterna-tive splicing, and the activity of epigenetic modifiers like EZH2, BRD4, LSD1, and the nBAF complex in conversion to a neuroendocrine or small cell phenotype in CRPC. We hypothesize that only a subset of CRPC tumors have the propensity for tumor plasticity and conversion to the neuroendo-crine phenotype and outline how we might target these plastic and emergent phenotypes in CRPC. In conclusion, we assess the current and future avenues for treatment and determine that the heter-ogeneity of CRPCs lacking AR activity will require diverse treatment approaches.

Localizing Peptidoglycan Synthesis in Helicobacter pylori using Clickable Metabolic Probes

Curr Protoc

2021 Nina Salama; Jennifer Taylor

The bacterial cell wall, composed of peptidoglycan (PG), provides structural integrity for the cell and is responsible for cell shape in most bacteria. Here we present tools to study the cell wall using a clickable PG-specific sugar, 2-alkyne muramic acid (MurNAc-alk), as a metabolic probe. Here we present a new reaction pathway for generating MurNAc-alk. We also include protocols for labeling PG synthesis in Helicobacter pylori, determining the identity of the labeled muropeptides using LC-MS/MS, sample preparation of cells labeled for a short fraction of the doubling time, and visualization using 3D structured illumination microscopy. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Alternative synthesis of MurNAc-alk (direct coupling) Support Protocol 1: Growing Helicobacter pylori in liquid culture Support Protocol 2: Fosfomycin rescue assay Basic Protocol 2: Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to determine incorporation of MurNAc-alk within the peptidoglycan of H. pylori Support Protocol 3: Hayashi test to determine if SDS is present in the supernatant of peptidoglycan preparations Support Protocol 4: Creating custom cytocentrifuge units for use in a swinging-bucket tabletop centrifuge Basic Protocol 3: Labeling H. pylori with MurNAc-alk or D-Ala-alk Basic Protocol 4: Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) imaging on the DeltaVision OMX.

Computational modelling of perivascular-niche dynamics for the optimization of treatment schedules for glioblastoma

Nat Biomed Eng

2021 Eric Holland; Siobhan Pattwell; Hans-Georg Wirsching

Glioblastoma stem-like cells dynamically transition between a chemoradiation-resistant state and a chemoradiation-sensitive state. However, physical barriers in the tumour microenvironment restrict the delivery of chemotherapy to tumour compartments that are distant from blood vessels. Here, we show that a massively parallel computational model of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the perivascular niche that incorporates glioblastoma stem-like cells and differentiated tumour cells as well as relevant tissue-level phenomena can be used to optimize the administration schedules of concurrent radiation and temozolomide-the standard-of-care treatment for glioblastoma. In mice with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-driven glioblastoma, the model-optimized treatment schedule increased the survival of the animals. For standard radiation fractionation in patients, the model predicts that chemotherapy may be optimally administered about one hour before radiation treatment. Computational models of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the tumour microenvironment could be used to predict tumour responses to a broader range of treatments and to optimize treatment regimens.

Reprogramming of the FOXA1 cistrome in treatment-emergent neuroendocrine prostate cancer

Nat Commun

2021 Ilsa Coleman; Arja Kaipainen; Colm Morrissey; Eva Corey; Navonil De Sarkar; Peter Nelson

Lineage plasticity, the ability of a cell to alter its identity, is an increasingly common mechanism of adaptive resistance to targeted therapy in cancer. An archetypal example is the development of neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) after treatment of prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD) with inhibitors of androgen signaling. NEPC is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that aberrantly expresses genes characteristic of neuroendocrine (NE) tissues and no longer depends on androgens. Here, we investigate the epigenomic basis of this resistance mechanism by profiling histone modifications in NEPC and PRAD patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) using chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq). We identify a vast network of cis-regulatory elements (N~15,000) that are recurrently activated in NEPC. The FOXA1 transcription factor (TF), which pioneers androgen receptor (AR) chromatin binding in the prostate epithelium, is reprogrammed to NE-specific regulatory elements in NEPC. Despite loss of dependence upon AR, NEPC maintains FOXA1 expression and requires FOXA1 for proliferation and expression of NE lineage-defining genes. Ectopic expression of the NE lineage TFs ASCL1 and NKX2-1 in PRAD cells reprograms FOXA1 to bind to NE regulatory elements and induces enhancer activity as evidenced by histone modifications at these sites. Our data establish the importance of FOXA1 in NEPC and provide a principled approach to identifying cancer dependencies through epigenomic profiling.