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Living with Stage 4: The breast cancer no one understands

In a culture focused on survivorship, those with metastatic breast cancer who will be in treatment for the rest of their lives can feel isolated and misunderstood

Oct. 24, 2014 | By Diane Mapes / Fred Hutch News Service

Terri Pollastro

Teri Pollastro,a 54-year-old Stage 4 patient from Seattle, said, “People don’t understand the word metastatic to begin with. ... When I’d tell them I was Stage 4, they’d give me pity or stay away or see me a year later and think I was a ghost. They couldn’t believe I was alive."

Robert Hood / Fred Hutch News Service

A no-nonsense Texan of 60 years, Jody Schoger has a very no-nonsense way of educating people about her metastatic breast cancer.

“Someone will say, ‘When are you done with treatment?’ and I’ll tell them, ‘When I’m dead,’” said Schoger, a writer and cancer advocate who lives near Houston.  “So many people interpret survivorship as going across the board. That everybody survives cancer now. But everybody does not survive cancer.”

An estimated 155,000 plus women (and men) in the U.S. currently live with “mets,” Stage 4 breast cancer that’s traveled through the bloodstream to create tumors in the liver, lungs, brain, bones and/or other parts of the body. While treatable, metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is incurable. Between 20 and 30 percent of women with early stage breast cancer go on to develop MBC. Median survival is three years; annually, the disease takes 40,000 lives. 

As with primary breast cancer, treatment for mets can often be harsh and unforgiving.  But dealing with an incurable illness and the side effects of its treatment aren’t the only burden MBC patients have to bear. Many also have to educate others about their disease, explaining over and over that no, the scans and blood tests and treatments will never come to end. No, the metastasized breast cancer in their lungs is neither lung cancer nor linked to smoking. No, staying positive and “just fighting hard” isn’t going to beat back their late stage disease.

As one mets patient in this Living Beyond Breast Cancer video put it, “It’s almost like having another job … My wish would be that the larger support circle would just get it more.”

A disease no one ‘gets’

Sadly, people don’t “get” mets. In fact, a recent survey sponsored by Pfizer Oncology shows just how misunderstood it is. Sixty percent of the 2,000 people surveyed knew little to nothing about MBC while 72 percent believed advanced breast cancer was curable as long as it was diagnosed early. Even more disheartening, a full 50 percent thought breast cancer progressed because patients either didn’t take the right treatment or the right preventative measures.

“They’ve built an industry built on four words – early detection equals cure -- and that doesn’t even begin to define breast cancer,” said Schoger, who helped found Breast Cancer Social Media, a virtual community for breast cancer survivors, surgeons, oncologists and others. “Women are blamed for the fate of bad biology.”

The MBC Alliance, a consortium of 29 cancer organizations including the biggest names in breast cancer (think Avon, Komen, Susan Love, etc.), addressed this lack of understanding and support as well as what many patient advocates term the underfunding of MBC research in a recently published landmark report

“The dominance of the ‘breast cancer survivor’ identity masks the reality that patients treated for early stage breast cancer can experience metastatic recurrence … [anywhere from] a few months [to] 20 years or more after initial diagnosis,” the report states. “Public messaging about the ‘cure’ and survivorship is so pervasive that people diagnosed at Stage 4 with MBC can be stigmatized by the perception that they’ve failed to take care of themselves or undergo annual screening.”

‘You end up on Mars’

Schoger’s breast cancer -- called invasive lobular carcinoma or ILC -- came back 15 years after her original diagnosis and treatment.

“You think you’re going to be flying to Chicago and land at O’Hare and you end up on Mars,” she said of her April 2013 mets diagnosis.  “It’s not well known that you can have late recurrence. I even had an oncology nurse tell me ‘Oh, you’re cured’ at eight years.”

Schoger’s doctors threw everything at her cancer after her initial diagnosis: mastectomy, chemotherapy, radiation and the daily medication tamoxifen, a form of hormone (or endocrine) therapy designed to cut off the food supply of her estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer.

But with MBC, the treatment philosophy is different.

“With primary cancer, they say, ‘We’re going to pull out all the big guns. We’re going to put it in permanent remission,’” she said. “With MBC, you use as little as possible to get the biggest effect. You attempt to stabilize the disease.”

For Schoger, that means a daily aromatase inhibitor (AI), which shuts down estrogen production even further to starve  her cancer, along with a monthly infusion of Xgeva, a bone strengthening agent designed to combat the bone-zapping side effects of her AI treatment.

Schoger said she will remain on this therapy until it stops working. Then, like most patients with MBC, she’ll move on to something else.

“With metastasis, you’ll have times where you’re responding well and your disease is stable,” she said. “And then there will be a scary time of progression. Then there will be a new treatment, a time of stability again, then – boom – progression. And it’s all sort of going down each time that happens.

“None of us knows which way our disease is going to go,” said Schoger, who has lost many friends to MBC. “Everybody hopes for the longest possible time for the first therapy you’re given. But some women have aggressive disease and just blow through their therapies.”

From ‘cured’ to Stage 4

Others, like Teri Pollastro, a 54-year-old Stage 4 patient from Seattle, respond surprisingly well.

Diagnosed with early stage ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in 1999, Pollastro underwent a mastectomy but did not receive chemotherapy, radiation or tamoxifen, since her cancer was ER negative.

“They used the C-word with me, they told me I was cured,” she said. “Every time I went back to my oncologist, he would roll his eyes at me when I had questions.”

In 2003, Pollastro switched to Seattle Cancer Care Alliance where she saw Dr. Julie Gralow, a breast cancer oncologist and clinical researcher at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Gralow discovered Pollastro’s cancer had metastasized to her liver.

“My husband and I were in shock,” said Pollastro of her mets diagnosis. “You don’t go from being cured to Stage 4.”

Pollastro went on Herceptin, a type of immunotherapy for women with HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer, and did six months of chemotherapy.

“I felt better right away with the treatment,” she said. “But the problem is, it stopped [working]. That’s what you can expect with mets. And there’s always some residual cancer. And that starts percolating.”

And along with mets, she also had to deal with many misconceptions regarding her disease.

“People don’t understand the word metastatic to begin with,” she said. “They’d say, ‘Oh now you have liver cancer? How could that happen? Doesn’t it go to the other breast first? And when I’d tell them I was Stage 4, they’d give me pity or stay away or see me a year later and think I was a ghost. They couldn’t believe I was alive.”

The Mercer Island, Wash., mother of two, who often counsels newly diagnosed patients, sometimes even found it difficult to relate to early stage breast cancer survivors.

“They’re like, ‘I did this’ and ‘I did that’ and ‘I beat cancer’ and they think they’re going to be fine and I think, ‘Well, so did I,’” she said. “Or people will ask me, ‘Aren’t you worried about all that radiation you’re getting from your scans?’ and I’ll think, ‘Are you kidding me? You think I’ve got a choice here?’”

New targeted therapies

As new treatments are slowly being approved, MBC patients are starting to have more choices, though.

Gralow said the human genome project has led to a much better understanding of breast cancer with all of its subsets and behavior patterns. Therapies are no longer “one-size-fits-all” but targeted for each cancer subset. 

“We still have a long way to go and we are still losing too many women … but there is a lot more hope for many years of good quality life for a patient diagnosed with a metastatic recurrence now than there was two decades ago,” she said.

One new drug, Perjeta, has shown particular promise when teamed with Herceptin and chemo, bumping survival rates in HER2 positive mets patients by nearly 16 months.

“That’s meaningful,” said Gralow. “If you look at the old textbooks, we used to predict that you’d live a year or maybe two at most. And if you were HER2 positive, it was much shorter.”

Pollastro, who was on Herceptin for seven years, has also benefited from new therapies. In 2004, she participated in a vaccine clinical study run by Fred Hutch’s Dr. Nora Disis and also received targeted radiation therapy at a cancer treatment center in Rochester, New York. As a result, she’s currently NED (no evidence of disease).

But she’s still cautious about using the word “cured”.

“The longer I go, the less worried I get,” she said. “But I feel like I’m on a merry-go-round and I keep waiting for it to stop. I’ve lost a lot of friends and feel bad about that. I have a little survivor’s guilt. But It’s like musical chairs. I keep wondering, ‘When am I going to miss the chair?’ So far, I’ve been lucky.”

Schoger whose disease has stabilized but not disappeared entirely, said she too feels lucky.

“I feel like I’m on Easy Street,” she said. “I’m not on chemo right now, I’m on endocrine therapy and it’s shrinking the cancer and relieving symptoms.”

As for the stigma surrounding mets, there are signs that that, too, may be starting to shrink, thanks to the work of advocates.

“This is the first year since I can remember that I’ve seen media reports that have included women with metastatic disease,” said Schoger. “And the MBC Alliance report was very blunt about how the survivorship story has masked the issues of the mets community. If an alliance of breast cancer organizations comes out and makes that strong statement, that’s phenomenal progress. That’s a great step forward.”

Diane Mapes is a staff writer at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. She has also written extensively about health issues for,,,, Columns and several other publications. She also writes the breast cancer blog, her at

Solid tumors, such as those of the breast, are the focus of Solid Tumor Translational Research, a network comprised of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, UW Medicine and Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. STTR is bridging laboratory sciences and patient care to provide the most precise treatment options for patients with solid tumor cancers.

Are you interested in reprinting or republishing this story? Be our guest! We want to help connect people with the information they need. We just ask that you link back to the original article, preserve the author’s byline and refrain from making edits that alter the original context. Questions? Email editor Linda Dahlstrom at

A conversation with Joe Hutchinson

The son of Fred Hutchinson shares his memories of his dad and his uncle, Bill, who founded the cancer center in his brother's memory

Oct. 23, 2014 | By Robert Hood / Fred Hutch News Service

The first thing I noticed about Joe Hutchinson is how much he looks like his father. He’s got the same rough-cut facial features and powerful jaw his father wore to every baseball game he played or managed.

However, the thing I learned about Joe when he recently visited the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center campus is how much of an impact his Uncle Bill Hutchinson, founder of the Fred Hutch, had on Joe.

Watch his video interview with my colleague, Linda Dahlstrom, to see what Joe says about the death of his father and his uncle’s response to that tragedy.

Joe Hutchinson shares his memory of his dad, Fred, the baseball player and namesake of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

‘I have the chance to fight back’: Choosing a preventive double mastectomy

How one BRCA1-positive woman decided to have both breasts removed to lower her risk of breast cancer

Oct. 22, 2014 | By Dr. Rachel Tompa / Fred Hutch News Service

Justine Avery Sands opted for a preventive double mastectomy to reduce her inherited risk for breast cancer

Two years ago, Justine Avery Sands decided to have her breasts removed in a surgery known as preventive double mastectomy, a choice prompted by her family history of breast cancer.

One of Justine Avery Sands’ first memories was of driving to the hospital with her mother.

“She was a very open woman. She didn’t believe in lying,” said Sands, a 34-year-old Seattle sales executive. So when Sands asked, her mom told the 4-year-old exactly where they were going: to see a doctor about a lump her mother had found in her breast.

“I told her, ‘Maybe it is that Froot Loop I gave you earlier,’” Sands remembered. “She laughed and said, ‘I hope so!’”

That day was the beginning of Sands’ journey with cancer. Five years later, her mother died of breast cancer at the age of 43, when Sands was 9 years old. A few years after that, Sands’ aunt was diagnosed with breast cancer. She went into remission but later died of ovarian cancer. Then a cousin was diagnosed with breast cancer at 34.

Two years ago, Sands decided to have her own breasts removed in a surgery known as prophylactic, or preventive, double mastectomy – a choice prompted by the reasons behind her family’s history of breast cancer. Her cousin’s doctor recommended genetic testing, and many of her other relatives decided to get tested too. It turned out that the family harbors a mutation in the BRCA1 gene that dramatically raises the risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Sands, fresh out of college, delayed her genetic testing for several more years.

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When a cold can kill: Cancer, transplant patients at risk from ordinary viral infections

Flu shots, hand hygiene and a healthy fear of public germs can help keep them safe during recovery, experts say

Oct. 21, 2014 | By JoNel Aleccia / Fred Hutch News Service

Bridget Clawson

Bridget Clawson survived the rigors of breast cancer treatment only to nearly succumb to viral pneumonia.

Photo by Robert Hood / Fred Hutch News Service

When Bridget Clawson was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2009, she naturally assumed that that was the disease she had to beat.

So when she survived a partial mastectomy, nearly a year of chemotherapy and weeks of radiation – only to wind up in a hospital emergency room with a case of viral pneumonia that almost killed her, the 59-year-old Edmonds, Washington, woman couldn’t quite believe it.

“I realized, oh my goodness, I could have died,” she recalled. “It was a shock that it could be anything else other than my cancer treatment.”

What Clawson didn’t know then – like most cancer patients and those who’ve just had stem cell transplants – is that ordinary viral infections can pose an extraordinary risk to people with compromised immune systems.

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Why the flu hit hardest in middle-aged adults last year

Previous influenza infections in childhood may be the culprit, study finds

Oct. 20, 2014 | By Dr. Rachel Tompa / Fred Hutch News Service

The flu hit hardest in middle-aged adults last year

Only 37 percent of adults aged 18-64 got a flu shot last year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Photo by Justin Sullivan / Getty Images file

Last year’s flu season was particularly brutal, and a surprising population was hit the hardest: young and middle-aged adults. New research suggests that an immune response unique to this age group may be to blame for last year’s flu toll and points to possible improvements to the annual vaccine.

That poor immune response was shaped by the flu strains that people born before 1985 were exposed to in childhood, according to new work led by researchers at The Wistar Institute that involved investigators from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and elsewhere.

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To BSE or not to BSE?

What you need to know about breast self-exam and self-awareness

Oct. 20, 2014 | By Diane Mapes / Fred Hutch News Service

A video produced by the Scottish government encourages women to get breast cancer screening and know their breasts.

It’s Breast Cancer Awareness Month and the airwaves and Internet are swirling with information on mammograms, and the benefits of early detection and screening.

But where does the humble breast self-exam fit into this picture? Should women still perform BSEs on themselves? Or do we put all of our “eggs” – if you’ll pardon the expression -- in one breast-screening basket?

“Mammogram is just one piece of the whole screening process,” said Dr. Julie Gralow, a clinical researcher and breast cancer oncologist with Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and its treatment arm, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. “Screening involves visual inspection and breast self-awareness and knowing what’s normal for you.”

Heidi Trott, a nurse practitioner and three-time breast cancer survivor who counsels newly diagnosed patients, said SCCA encourages breast self-exam but that breast self-awareness is even better.

“I use the term awareness rather than examination,” she said. “It’s important to inspect the breast, to look at it in the mirror, to get a sense of what your breast tissue feels like.”

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