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Celebrating our achievements

May 1, 2015 | By Fred Hutch staff

Dr. Linda Buck

Nobel laureate Dr. Linda Buck is a neurobiologist in the Basic Sciences Division at Fred Hutch.

Photo by Kevin Wolf / AP Images for HHMI

We want to recognize the excellent work and achievements of our staff and faculty and will be regularly highlighting them in this space. Here are some recent notable accomplishments:

Dr. Linda Buck elected to Royal Society

Nobel laureate Dr. Linda Buck of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center's Basic Sciences Division has been elected to the Royal Society as a foreign member. The 2015 fellows were elected Thursday.

The Royal Society, the United Kingdom’s national academy of science, was founded in the 1660s to recognize, promote, and support excellence in science and to encourage the development and use of science for the benefit of humanity. It is the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence. Each year the society elects up to 52 new fellows and up to 10 new foreign members.

Buck was awarded a Nobel Prize in medicine in 2004, along with Dr. Richard Axel of Columbia University, for her pioneering studies on the sense of smell. They discovered that odor molecules are detected by hundreds of different odor receptor proteins in the nose and showed how signals from those receptors are organized in the nervous system to create diverse odor perceptions.

Buck and her laboratory team at Fred Hutch continue to study the sense of smell, focusing on neural pathways in the brain that govern scent-driven behaviors, such as those related to fear and appetite.

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Remembering Fred Hutch's Dr. Harold Weintraub 20 years later

20 years after Dr. Harold Weintraub’s death, his life — and his research — are still making a difference

May 1, 2015 | By Dr. Rachel Tompa / Fred Hutch News Service

Dr. Harold Weintraub

Twenty years after his death from brain cancer, friends, family and colleagues remember Dr. Harold "Hal" Weintraub and gather today at Fred Hutch for the Weintraub Graduate Student Award symposium established in his honor.

Fred Hutch News Service file

Dr. Harold Weintraub, known to everyone as Hal, wanted to know.

He wanted to know what makes a muscle cell a muscle, a nerve cell a nerve. The answers he uncovered opened the doors to stem cell research and made possible Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center’s developments in cord blood transplantation that now cure many people living with blood cancers.

He wanted to know what happens when genes are activated in the cell. The answer he and his colleagues found spawned the modern field of epigenetics.

He wanted to know why a certain experiment in his lab didn’t work the way it should have. The solution led to the discovery of a completely new class of molecular regulation.

And when Weintraub was diagnosed with brain cancer in 1994, he wanted to know what was growing, unseen, inside his head. Trying to solve that problem brought together the most brilliant minds of the time working on his form of cancer, the aggressive and usually deadly glioblastoma.

Twenty years after his death at the age of 49, his friends, family and colleagues remember Weintraub — and gather today at the Weintraub Graduate Student Award symposium established in his honor. The biologist who made incredible discovery after incredible discovery. The faculty member who laid the groundwork for other scientists to flex their creative muscles. The mentor who selflessly nurtured many young trainees. The father who taught his sons to never stop asking why. The cherished friend.

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Don't douche, and other lessons about the vaginal microbiome

Exploring the microscopic world between our legs

April 30, 2015 | By Susan Keown / Fred Hutch News Service

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'How do you say thank you?': Stem cell recipient, donor meet

Stem cell donor, recipient meet each other – and researchers who made transplant possible

April 29, 2015 | By Linda Dahlstrom / Fred Hutch News Service

Leukemia survivor Mark Tose speaks with his stem cell donor, Reed Salmons, about their shared cancer story.

Leukemia survivor Mark Tose had one burning question for Dr. Mary Flowers: How much of the connection he feels with the donor for the transplant that saved his life is because they were biologically a perfect match — or is something else at play?

“We’re so similar,” Tose told Flowers, who directs the Adult Clinical Care Long-Term Follow-Up Program at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.  “We both have red hair, a similar sense of humor, even the same motto (‘It’s all good’). And it feels like we’ve known each other forever.”

In truth, Tose, 60, and Reed Salmons, his 23-year-old peripheral blood stem cell donor, only met in person Saturday at a meeting organized by national registry Be The Match and Bloodworks Northwest.  In the days since, they’ve shared meals, played music together, attended a party thrown in Salmons’ honor by Tose and his wife, Patty, and on Monday, they toured Fred Hutch to see the labs where Salmons’ stem cells were processed. Through it all, they’ve felt an unexpectedly easy familiarity.

“There is a lot of very deep connection between a donor and the patient,” Flowers told Tose Monday morning. “He is living inside you.”

Dr. Mary Flowers

"This is why we do what we do — every single life that's saved," said Dr. Mary Flowers, of meeting stem cell donor Reed Salmons who visited Fred Hutch Monday with Mark Tose, who received his cells. Flowers directs the Adult Clinical Care Long-Term Follow-Up Program at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

Photo by Bo Jungmayer / Fred Hutch News Service

An unexpected turn

In May of 2013, Tose, a Boeing senior manager who also flies small planes as a hobby,  went for a routine physical so he could renew his pilot’s license. At 7 that night, his doctor called him to say his blood counts were abnormal. 

“I told him I feel fine. It’s obviously a mistake and asked him if they could run the test again,” he remembers. But they already had, his doctor told him. It was no mistake. He had acute myeloid leukemia.

Tose underwent six rounds of chemotherapy, including a final round at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, and eventually went into remission.  But due to an anomaly in his genetic makeup, Tose learned, it was almost certain his cancer would come back — and likely very soon unless he had a peripheral stem cell transplant.

While he has a large and supportive family, cancer has cut a swath through it and so some immediate relatives weren’t eligible to donate and those who were didn’t match.  

“I was so scared,” remembers Tose. “… They had told me ‘It is our judgment that your long-term life comes down to getting a stem cell transplant.’ “

His doctors turned to Be The Match, the largest bone marrow registry in the world, which strives to find a donor for patients who don’t have a suitable one in their family. 

Soon, Tose learned, someone had been found who matched 10 out of 10 antigens tested for a stem cell transplant. A perfect match.

‘It was literally a cheek swab’

Salmons was a college student at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in the spring of 2013 when he decided to give up part of his lunch break to join the registry during a drive sponsored by the school’s football team. “It was literally a cheek swab and 10 minutes later I was done,” he said. 

He didn’t think much about it again until the following October when he started getting calls. At first he ignored them, not recognizing the number and believing it was a telemarketer. “Finally I got an email that pretty much said, ‘Please in God’s name give us a call back.’ “

When he did, he learned he was needed as a donor for a man with AML. By then, Salmons was a senior biology major doing a project on leukemia, something a friend had died of when they were both just kids. He was also in the middle of his final season playing lacrosse for his school, something he’d have to interrupt to donate. Without hesitation he agreed. “It was a no brainer to go through with it.”

In the time leading up to the day his stem cells were harvested, he was aware that he carried the key to another life. “I kept thinking, don’t get sick. Don’t get in a car accident.”

Salmons went through more screenings and then, a few days before donating, he had a series of injections of growth factor to stimulate the stem cells. The day of his donation, a central line catheter was inserted and he watched his cells get harvested to be flown across the country to Tose. “It was cool,” he remembered.

His only side effect, he said, was some bone achiness in his hips, back and knees.

“It truly was so easy,” he said. 

‘Happy Birthday’

On Jan. 22, 2014, Tose was in his hospital room at the University of Washington waiting for Salmons’ stem cells to arrive. A blizzard had hit the East Coast and the first flight that was supposed to bring them had been canceled. Tose worried they wouldn’t arrive.

“At that point, you’re on a one-way journey,” he said. “You’re either going to succeed or you’re going to die. You only have so much of a time window.”

Technicians in the lab at Fred Hutch were waiting to process the stem cells as soon as they arrived. They vividly remember worrying about the storm and waiting for the cells to arrive, said Christy Satterlee, a patient access manager at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Fred Hutch's treatment arm.

At 10 a.m., Salmons’ stem cells arrived in Tose’s hospital room. He held the IV tube in his hands and watched them flow into his body. His hospital room was decorated with the motto, translated into a dozen languages, that he’d adapted years earlier to encourage his team at Boeing during a stressful time: It’s all good.

On that day, the nurse wrote a new message on the white board in his room: “Happy Birthday!”

Shortly after the transplant, Tose suffered some complications and was sedated and intubated so he’d breathe easier. He woke up in the intensive care unit of the University of Washington on Feb.  10, 2014, surrounded by his wife, brother, doctors and nurses.  “I looked up and I said ‘Did it work?’ They told me it did and I cried for a minute. Then I asked who won the Super Bowl.”

Tose was back.

From the moment Tose learned he was going to be given donated stem cells, he knew he’d want to meet the donor someday. But first he had to recover. In June he returned to work part time, then full time in August. But it proved to be too much and he had a bout of graft-vs.-host disease, in which the donor cells attack not only the disease but healthy parts of the body too, and he took a leave of absence from work.

In December, he found out his donor would be open to connecting. Be The Match allows patients to have anonymous contact during the first year, and they are allowed to make direct contact after that year if both parties consent. In February, at the one-year mark, Tose and Salmons learned each other’s names. 

Mark Tose, Reed Salmons and cellular therapy technologists

Mark Tose and Reed Salmons toured Fred Hutch and met the cellular therapy technologists who prepare stem cells before transplant. Andrew Mackie, fourth from the left in the back row, processed Salmons' cells himself. "We want to come and say thank you," Tose told them.

Photo by Bo Jungmayer / Fred Hutch News Service

'We won'

Tose Googled Salmons and within five minutes found himself watching a video the college student had made encouraging others to sign up for the bone marrow registry. He was awed by him.

“The first email I wrote him I asked, ‘How do you thank someone for saving your life?’ “

The two began taking by phone, finding an easy rapport. Salmons is about the same age as Tose’s children, Amanda, 25, and Alex, 23. He now works in a genetics lab at Children’s Hospital in Philadelphia and will be applying to med schools this summer where he hopes to pursue his interest in oncology.

On Saturday, shortly before the two men met in person, Tose was overcome with emotion. “His selfless act saved my life,” he said, wiping away tears.

Minutes later, Salmons rounded the corner. Tose’s face lit up as he clasped both of Salmons’ hands in a high five and then folded him into a bear hug. “We won!” Tose told him.

“Between you and me, we can show people what’s possible,” he said. “We can help others live.”

On Monday, the men toured the labs on the Fred Hutch campus and met those who prepare stem cells for transplant, including Andrew Mackie, who processed Salmons’ cells when they finally arrived after the storm. Tose thanked every person in the lab.

“Thank you for saving my life,” he told them, growing teary. “It’s a message that has to be delivered in person. It took so many people — it’s a whole community that helps you.”

Tose wants to help others too and is a volunteer in a T-cell trial at Fred Hutch, hoping to help pave the way for better treatments and cures. “I’m alive because of a lot of people who sacrificed and took a risk.”

The men say they’ve felt like family from that very first phone call, but are looking forward to really getting to know each other over the coming years. Tose said he’ll teach Salmons to play the guitar, one of his hobbies. And Salmons says he’ll tutor Tose in lacrosse.

“We’ve got time,” Tose said.

Linda Dahlstrom is the senior writer/editor at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Previously, she was the health editor for NBC News Digital and msnbc.com. She’s also worked at several newspapers during her 25-year career as a journalist covering AIDS, cancer, end-of-life issues and global health. Reach her at ldahlstr@fredhutch.org.

Are you interested in reprinting or republishing this story? Be our guest! We want to help connect people with the information they need. We just ask that you link back to the original article, preserve the author’s byline and refrain from making edits that alter the original context. Questions? Email editor Linda Dahlstrom at ldahlstr@fredhutch.org.


Dr. Sue Biggins elected to National Academy of Sciences

Biologist honored for her research on how cells segregate chromosomes during division

April 28, 2015 | By Fred Hutch News Service staff

Dr. Sue Biggins

Dr. Sue Biggins is a researcher in the Fred Hutch Basic Sciences Division.

Fred Hutch file

Dr. Sue Biggins, a genetics and biology researcher at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, on Tuesday was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.

One of the country’s highest scientific honors (akin to a Baseball Hall of Fame for science), the NAS is a private, nonprofit society of distinguished scholars. Established by an act of Congress and signed into law in 1863 by President Abraham Lincoln, the organization is charged with providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology.

Biggins, who received an NAS award in molecular biology in 2013, has been a member of Fred Hutch’s Basic Sciences Division for 15 years.

Biggins studies how cells divide and discovered how specialized “cellular machines” known as kinetochores allow cells to separate and distribute their chromosomes accurately. This shuffling of chromosomes from mother to daughter cells must happen accurately with every cell division — mistakes in chromosome segregation are a hallmark of cancer cells and genetic defects that can lead to miscarriage.

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How the nose knows: Instinctive organization

Rodents' responses to social clues linked to unusual subset of neurons in the nose

April 27, 2015 | By Dr. Rachel Tompa / Fred Hutch News Service

Illustration of a woman smelling

How animals respond to social cues may involve a unique set of neurons in the nose, according to a new study led by Fred Hutch's Dr. Linda Buck.

Illustration by Kimberly Carney

Mice and other mammals — people included — have an exquisite ability to sift out different scents. Humans can recognize at least 10,000 different odors, and some animals may detect far more. The neurons that respond to airborne scent molecules, or odorants, can do more than just recognize scents, such as triggering a visceral memory of childhood Thanksgivings or the desire to get away from a rotten stench.

Some scents, especially those emitted from other animals, can cause instinctive behavior.

How mice respond to social cues — instinctive reactions driven by their superb sense of smell — may involve a unique set of neurons in the nose, according to a new study by Fred Hutch biologist and Nobel Laureate Dr. Linda Buck and colleagues.

The study, published April 20 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, sheds light on a small but unique set of genes involved in scent recognition, known as trace amine-associated receptor, or TAAR, genes, by capturing the molecular details of how and where these genes are turned on and off in the nose.

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