Guidelines provide differing recommendations regarding direct-acting oral anticoagulants vs low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT). This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban vs LMWH for treatment of CAT. Using US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare-linked data from 2013 through 2016, we evaluated adults with active breast, lung, ovarian, or pancreatic cancer, who were admitted to the hospital or treated in the emergency department for CAT and were prescribed rivaroxaban or LMWH for outpatient anticoagulation. Patients with luminal gastrointestinal or genitourinary cancers were excluded. Rivaroxaban and LMWH users were 1:1 propensity score matched. Outcomes included the composite of recurrent thrombosis or major bleeding, each outcome separately, and mortality at 6 months, using an intent-to-treat approach. On-treatment analysis after 12 months was also performed. Proportional hazards models for the subdistribution of competing risk were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We included 529 rivaroxaban- and 529 LMWH-treated patients with CAT. Rivaroxaban was not associated with differences in risk of the composite outcome (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.41-1.22), major bleeding (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.50-2.01), or mortality (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.70-1.07) vs LMWH, but it reduced recurrent thrombosis (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.95). On-treatment analysis at 12 months showed similar results. Rivaroxaban may be a reasonable alternative to LMWH for patients with CAT without gastrointestinal or genitourinary cancer.
Seasonal influenza virus A/H3N2 is a major cause of death globally. Vaccination remains the most effective preventative. Rapid mutation of hemagglutinin allows viruses to escape adaptive immunity. This antigenic drift necessitates regular vaccine updates. Effective vaccine strains need to represent H3N2 populations circulating one year after strain selection. Experts select strains based on experimental measurements of antigenic drift and predictions made by models from hemagglutinin sequences. We developed a novel influenza forecasting framework that integrates phenotypic measures of antigenic drift and functional constraint with previously published sequence-only fitness estimates. Forecasts informed by phenotypic measures of antigenic drift consistently outperformed previous sequence- only estimates, while sequence-only estimates of functional constraint surpassed more comprehensive experimentally-informed estimates. Importantly, the best models integrated estimates of both functional constraint and either antigenic drift phenotypes or recent population growth.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
Children are strikingly underrepresented in COVID-19 case counts. In the United States, children represent 22% of the population but only 1.7% of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases as of April 2, 2020. One possibility is that symptom-based viral testing is less likely to identify infected children, since they often experience milder disease than adults. Here, to better assess the frequency of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection, we serologically screen 1,775 residual samples from Seattle Children's Hospital collected from 1,076 children seeking medical care during March and April of 2020. Only one child was seropositive in March, but seven were seropositive in April for a period seroprevalence of ≈1%. Most seropositive children (6/8) were not suspected of having had COVID-19. The sera of seropositive children have neutralizing activity, including one that neutralized at a dilution > 1:18,000. Therefore, an increasing number of children seeking medical care were infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the early Seattle outbreak despite few positive viral tests.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
Hematopoietic growth factors, including erythrocyte stimulating agents (ESAs), granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, and thrombopoietin mimetics, can mitigate anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia resulting from chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer. In the context of pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infection, patients with cancer have been identified as a group at high risk of morbidity and mortality from this infection. Our subcommittee of the NCCN Hematopoietic Growth Factors Panel convened a voluntary group to review the potential value of expanded use of such growth factors in the current high-risk environment. Although recommendations are available on the NCCN website in the COVID-19 Resources Section (https://www.nccn.org/covid-19/), these suggestions are provided without substantial context or reference. Herein we review the rationale and data underlying the suggested alterations to the use of hematopoietic growth factors for patients with cancer in the COVID-19 era.
J Gen Intern Med
BACKGROUND: Skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are high-risk settings for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Infection rates among employees are infrequently described. OBJECTIVE: To describe SARS-CoV-2 rates among SNF employees and residents during a non-outbreak time period, we measured cross-sectional SARS-CoV-2 prevalence across multiple sites in the Seattle area. DESIGN: SARS-CoV-2 testing was performed for SNF employees and residents using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A subset of employees completed a sociodemographic and symptom questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Between March 29 and May 13, 2020, we tested 1583 employees and 1208 residents at 16 SNFs for SARS-CoV-2. MAIN MEASURE: SARS-CoV-2 testing results and symptom report among employees and residents. KEY RESULTS: Eleven of the 16 SNFs had one or more resident or employee test positive. Overall, 46 (2.9%) employees had positive or inconclusive testing for SARS-CoV-2, and among those who completed surveys, most were asymptomatic and involved in direct patient care. The majority of employees tested were female (934, 73%), and most employees were Asian (392, 30%), Black (360, 28%), or white (360, 28%). Among the 1208 residents tested, 110 (9.1%) had positive or inconclusive results. There was no association between the presence of positive residents and positive employees within a SNF (p=0.62, McNemar's test). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest study of SNFs to date, SARS-CoV-2 infections were detected among both employees and residents. Employees testing positive were often asymptomatic and involved in direct patient care. Surveillance testing is needed for SNF employees and residents during the pandemic response.
HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 genes have significant and potentially causal associations with autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D). To follow on the earlier analysis on high-risk HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8.1, the current analysis uncovers seven residues (αa1, α157, α196, β9, β30, β57, β70) that are resistant to T1D among subjects with DQ4, 5, 6 and 7 resistant DQ haplotypes. These seven residues form 13 common motifs; six motifs are significantly resistant, six motifs have modest or no associations (p-values>0.05), and one motif has 7 copies observed among controls only. The motif "DAAFYDG", "DAAYHDG" and "DAAYYDR" have significant resistance to T1D (OR = 0.03, 0.25 and 0.18, p-value = 6.11*10-24, 3.54*10-15 and 1.03*10-21, respectively). Remarkably, a change of a single residue from the motif "DAAYH D G" to "DAAYH S G" (D to S at β57) alters the resistance potential, from resistant motif (OR = 0.15, p-value = 3.54*10-15) to a neutral motif (p-value = 0.183), the change of which was significant (Fisher's p-value = 0.0065). The extended set of linked residues associated with T1D resistance and unique to each cluster of HLA-DQ haplotypes represents facets of all known features and functions of these molecules: antigenic peptide binding, pMHCII complex stability, β167-169 RGD loop, TCR binding, formation of homodimer of alpha-beta heterodimers, and cholesterol binding in the cell membrane rafts. Identifications of these residues is a novel understanding of resistant DQ associations with T1D. Our analyses endow potential molecular approaches to identify immunological mechanisms that control disease susceptibility or resistance to provide novel targets for immunotherapeutic strategies.
Importance: Active surveillance is increasingly recognized as the preferred standard of care for men with low-risk prostate cancer. However, active surveillance requires repeated assessments, including prostate-specific antigen tests and biopsies that may increase anxiety, risk of complications, and cost. Objective: To identify and validate clinical parameters that can identify men who can safely defer follow-up prostate cancer assessments. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study (PASS) is a multicenter, prospective active surveillance cohort study initiated in July 2008, with ongoing accrual and a median follow-up period of 4.1 years. Men with prostate cancer managed with active surveillance from 9 North American academic medical centers were enrolled. Blood tests and biopsies were conducted on a defined schedule for least 5 years after enrollment. Model validation was performed among men at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) who did not enroll in PASS. Men with Gleason grade group 1 prostate cancer diagnosed since 2003 and enrolled in PASS before 2017 with at least 1 confirmatory biopsy after diagnosis were included. A total of 850 men met these criteria and had adequate follow-up. For the UCSF validation study, 533 active surveillance patients meeting the same criteria were identified. Exclusion criteria were treatment within 6 months of diagnosis, diagnosis before 2003, Gleason grade score of at least 2 at diagnosis or first surveillance biopsy, no surveillance biopsy, or missing data. Exposures: Active surveillance for prostate cancer. Main Outcomes and Measures: Time from confirmatory biopsy to reclassification, defined as Gleason grade group 2 or higher on subsequent biopsy. Results: A total of 850 men (median [interquartile range] age, 64 [58-68] years; 774 [91%] White) were included in the PASS cohort. A total of 533 men (median [interquartile range] age, 61 [57-65] years; 422 [79%] White) were included in the UCSF cohort. Parameters predictive of reclassification on multivariable analysis included maximum percent positive cores (hazard ratio [HR], 1.30 [95% CI, 1.09-1.56]; P=.004), history of any negative biopsy after diagnosis (1 vs 0: HR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.38-0.71]; P<.001 and 2 vs 0: HR, 0.18 [95% CI, 0.08-0.4]; P<.001), time since diagnosis (HR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.28-2.05]; P<.001), body mass index (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05-1.12]; P<.001), prostate size (HR, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.25-0.62]; P<.001), prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis (HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.15-1.98]; P=.003), and prostate-specific antigen kinetics (HR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.23-1.73]; P<.001). For prediction of nonreclassification at 4 years, the area under the receiver operating curve was 0.70 for the PASS cohort and 0.70 for the UCSF validation cohort. This model achieved a negative predictive value of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83-0.94) for those in the bottom 25th percentile of risk and of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.89-1.00) for those in the bottom 10th percentile. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, among men with low-risk prostate cancer, heterogeneity prevailed in risk of subsequent disease reclassification. These findings suggest that active surveillance intensity can be modulated based on an individual's risk parameters and that many men may be safely monitored with a substantially less intensive surveillance regimen.
JMIR Form Res
BACKGROUND: The majority of cigarette smokers want to quit someday but are not ready to commit to long-term abstinence. However, available smoking cessation treatments are not well-suited to meet the needs of these ambivalent smokers. Low-cost, high-reach mobile health (mHealth) interventions may be a cost-efficient means of offering assistance to ambivalent smokers, yet there are currently no evidence-based options available for this group. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and preliminarily evaluate the core content for an mHealth program targeting adult smokers who are ambivalent about quitting. The core content consisted of a series of "personal experiments" similar to those tested as part of a counseling intervention in prior work, including brief cognitive or behavioral tasks designed to boost readiness for changing smoking behavior. METHODS: We conducted individual user interviews (N=3) to refine program content, and then conducted a one-arm pilot study (N=25) to assess user receptivity and the potential impact of the experiments on motivation and self-efficacy to quit or reduce smoking. RESULTS: In user interviews, participants liked the concept of the personal experiments. Participants in the pilot study found a medium-fidelity prototype to be highly acceptable. After watching a brief orientation video that explained how the program works, most participants (80%, 20/25) indicated that it sounded interesting, primarily because it did not require any commitment to quit. All participants (100%, 25/25) completed all 7 experiments, including a 24-hour quit attempt, although not all were able to refrain from smoking for a full day based on qualitative feedback on the experiment. The mean rating of usefulness of the overall program was 4.12 (SD 1.09) out of 5, and the average rating of the difficulty of the experiments was 2.16 (SD 1.18) out of 5. At the last assessment point, 92% (23/25) of the participants indicated that they were more interested in either quitting or cutting back than when they began the program, and 72% (18/25) said that if the program had included a free trial of nicotine replacement therapy, they would have used it to try to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This formative work confirmed that ambivalent smokers are willing to use and will remain engaged with an mHealth intervention that employs the novel concept of personal experiments to enhance their motivation for and ability to quit smoking. The addition of action-oriented treatment (self-help and free nicotine replacement therapy, quitline referral) could further support users' efforts to stop smoking and remain quit.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified tens of thousands of genetic variants associated with various phenotypes, but together they explain only a fraction of heritability, suggesting many variants have yet to be discovered. Recently it has been recognized that incorporating functional information of genetic variants can improve power for identifying novel loci. For example, S-PrediXcan and TWAS tested the association of predicted gene expression with phenotypes based on GWAS summary statistics by leveraging the information on genetic regulation of gene expression and found many novel loci. However, as genetic variants may have effects on more than one gene and through different mechanisms, these methods likely only capture part of the total effects of these variants. In this paper, we propose a summary statistics-based mixed effects score test (sMiST) that tests for the total effect of both the effect of the mediator by imputing genetically predicted gene expression, like S-PrediXcan and TWAS, and the direct effects of individual variants. It allows for multiple functional annotations and multiple genetically predicted mediators. It can also perform conditional association analysis while adjusting for other genetic variants (e.g., known loci for the phenotype). Extensive simulation and real data analyses demonstrate that sMiST yields p-values that agree well with those obtained from individual level data but with substantively improved computational speed. Importantly, a broad application of sMiST to GWAS is possible, as only summary statistics of genetic variant associations are required. We apply sMiST to a large-scale GWAS of colorectal cancer using summary statistics from ∼120, 000 study participants and gene expression data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We identify several novel and secondary independent genetic loci.