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The TOP vector: a new high-titer lentiviral construct for delivery of sgRNAs and transgenes to primary T cells

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev

2021 Daryl Humes; Stephanie Rainwater; Julie Overbaugh

Efficient delivery of nucleic acids for the engineering of primary T cells is central to the study of the basic biology of these key immune effector cells and has clinical implications. To date, lentiviral vectors delivering guide RNAs for CRISPR-Cas9 editing are not optimal for use in primary cells. Herein, we describe the T cell optimized for packaging (TOP) vector for delivering guide RNAs and transgenes into primary T cells. The TOP vector produces high-titer virus compared to a routinely used guide RNA vector, resulting in a ~10-fold increase in transduction in T cells. Moreover, a TOP vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor and a guide RNA targeting the T cell receptor showed an ~5- to 9-fold increased transduction efficiency with ~2- to 3-fold higher expression compared to the commonly used epHIV7 vector and was simultaneously able to mediate efficient knockout of the endogenous T cell receptor in >71% of transduced cells upon Cas9 electroporation. The increased packaging of the TOP vector genome into viral particles appears to contribute to its higher transduction efficiency. The TOP vector represents an optimal tool for tandem delivery of transgenes and guide RNAs to primary T cells for use in functional screens and immunotherapy applications.

Medications in Single-Dose Vials and Implications of Discarded Injectable Drugs A National Academies Report

JAMA

2021 Gary Lyman

N/A

Patient Reported Outcomes and Long-Term Non-Adherence to Aromatase Inhibitors

J Natl Cancer Inst

2021 Kathryn Arnold; Julie Gralow; Scott Ramsey; Joseph Unger; Anna Moseley

BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is common and increases risk of breast cancer (BC) recurrence. We analyzed factors associated with non-adherence among patients enrolled in S1105, a randomized trial of text-messaging. METHODS: At enrollment, BC patients were required to have been on an adjuvant AI for 30days and were asked about financial, medication and demographic factors. They completed Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) representing pain (Brief Pain Inventory), endocrine symptoms (FACT-Endocrine Symptoms), and beliefs about medications (Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medicine; Brief Medication Questionnaire). Our primary endpoint was AI non-adherence at 36months, defined as urine AI metabolite assay <10ng/mL or no submitted specimen. We evaluated the association between individual baseline characteristics and non-adherence with logistic regression. A composite risk score reflecting the number of statistically significant baseline characteristics was examined. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 702 patients; median age was 60.9years. Overall, 35.9% patients were non-adherent at 36months. Younger patients (< age 65years) were more non-adherent (38.8% vs.28.6%, OR=1.51,95% CI=1.05-2.16, p=.02). Fourteen baseline PRO scales were each statistically significantly associated with non-adherence. In a composite risk model categorized into quartile levels, each increase in risk level was associated with a 46.5% increase in the odds of non-adherence (OR=1.47,95% CI=1.26-1.70, p<.001). The highest risk patients were more than three times more likely to be non-adherent than the lowest risk patients (OR=3.14, 95% CI=1.97-5.02, p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of multiple baseline PRO-specified risk factors was statistically significantly associated with AI non-adherence. The use of these assessments can help identify patients for targeted interventions to improve adherence.

American Society of Hematology 2021 guidelines for management of venous thromboembolism: prevention and treatment in patients with cancer

Blood Adv

2021 Gary Lyman

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication among patients with cancer. Patients with cancer and VTE are at a markedly increased risk for morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: These evidence-based guidelines of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) are intended to support patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals in their decisions about the prevention and treatment of VTE in patients with cancer. METHODS: ASH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel balanced to minimize potential bias from conflicts of interest. The guideline development process was supported by updated or new systematic evidence reviews. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess evidence and make recommendations. RESULTS: Recommendations address mechanical and pharmacological prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients with cancer, those undergoing a surgical procedure, and ambulatory patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. The recommendations also address the use of anticoagulation for the initial, short-term, and long-term treatment of VTE in patients with cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Strong recommendations include not using thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients receiving cancer chemotherapy at low risk of VTE and to use low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for initial treatment of VTE in patients with cancer. Conditional recommendations include using thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients with cancer, LMWH or fondaparinux for surgical patients with cancer, LMWH or direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in ambulatory patients with cancer receiving systemic therapy at high risk of VTE and LMWH or DOAC for initial treatment of VTE, DOAC for the short-term treatment of VTE, and LMWH or DOAC for the long-term treatment of VTE in patients with cancer.

Healthy Lifestyle and Clonal Hematopoiesis of Indeterminate Potential: Results From the Women's Health Initiative

J Am Heart Assoc

2021 Alex Reiner; Charles Kooperberg; Jingmin Liu

Background Presence of clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is associated with a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mortality. The relationship between a healthy lifestyle and CHIP is unknown. Methods and Results This analysis included 8709 postmenopausal women (mean age, 66.5 years) enrolled in the WHI (Women's Health Initiative), free of cancer or cardiovascular disease, with deep-coverage whole genome sequencing data available. Information on lifestyle factors (body mass index, smoking, physical activity, and diet quality) was obtained, and a healthy lifestyle score was created on the basis of healthy criteria met (0 point [least healthy] to 4 points [most healthy]). CHIP was derived on the basis of a prespecified list of leukemogenic driver mutations. The prevalence of CHIP was 8.6%. A higher healthy lifestyle score was not associated with CHIP (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% CI], 0.99 [0.80-1.23] and 1.13 [0.93-1.37]) for the upper (3 or 4 points) and middle category (2 points), respectively, versus referent (0 or 1 point). Across score components, a normal and overweight body mass index compared with obese was significantly associated with a lower odds for CHIP (OR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.57-0.88] and 0.83 [95% CI, 0.68-1.01], respectively; P-trend 0.0015). Having never smoked compared with being a current smoker tended to be associated with lower odds for CHIP. Conclusions A healthy lifestyle, based on a composite score, was not related to CHIP among postmenopausal women. However, across individual lifestyle factors, having a normal body mass index was strongly associated with a lower prevalence of CHIP. These findings support the idea that certain healthy lifestyle factors are associated with a lower frequency of CHIP.

Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate use is associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer: the mounting evidence of a protective role of progestins

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev

2021 Holly Harris

Background Combined oral contraceptive use is associated with a decreased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (ovarian cancer). There is suggestive evidence of an inverse association between progestin-only contraceptive use and ovarian cancer risk, but studies have been underpowered. Methods The current study used primary data from 7,977 women with ovarian cancer and 11,820 control women in seven case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to evaluate the association between use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), an injectable progestin-only contraceptive, and ovarian cancer risk. Logistic models were fit to determine the association between ever use of DMPA and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. A systematic review of the association between DMPA use and ovarian cancer risk was conducted. Results Ever use of DMPA was associated with a 35% decreased risk overall (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.85). There was a statistically significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing duration of use (p-trend<0.001). The systematic review yielded six studies, four of which showed an inverse association and two showed increased risk. Conclusions DMPA use appears to be associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer in a duration-dependent manner based on the preponderance of evidence. Further study of the mechanism through which DMPA use is associated with ovarian cancer is warranted. Impact The results of this study are of particular interest given the rise in popularity of progestin-releasing intrauterine devices which have a substantially lower progestin dose than that in DMPA, but may have a stronger local effect.

Cx43 phosphorylation sites regulate pancreatic cancer metastasis

Oncogene

2021 Joell Solan; Sunil Hingorani; Paul Lampe

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is aggressive, highly metastatic and characterized by a robust desmoplasia. Connexin proteins that form gap junctions have been implicated in tumor suppression for over 30 years. Cx43, the most widely expressed connexin, regulates cell behaviors, including migration and proliferation. Thus, we hypothesized that Cx43 could regulate PDA progression. Phosphorylation of Cx43 by Casein Kinase 1 (CK1) regulates gap junction assembly. We interbred the well-established KrasLSL-G12D/+;p48Cre/+ (KC) mouse model of PDA with homozygous "knock-in" mutant Cx43 mice bearing amino acid substitution at CK1 sites (Cx43CK1A) and found profound and surprising effects on cancer progression. Crossing the Cx43CK1A mouse onto the KC background (termed KC;CxCK1A) led to significant extension of lifespan, from a median of 370 to 486 days (p = 0.03) and a decreased incidence of metastasis (p = 0.045). However, when we examined early stages of disease, we found more rapid onset of tissue remodeling in the KC;CxCK1A mouse followed by divergence to a cystic phenotype. During tumorigenesis, gap junctions are increasingly present in stromal cells of the KC mice but are absent from the KC;Cx43CK1A mice. Tail vein metastasis assays with cells derived from KC or KC;CxCK1A tumors showed that KC;CxCK1A cells could efficiently colonize the lung and downregulate Cx43 expression, arguing that inhibition of metastasis was not occurring at the distal site. Instead, stromal gap junctions, their associated signaling events or other unknown Cx43-dependent events facilitate metastatic capacity in the primary tumor.

MAPK4 promotes prostate cancer by concerted activation of androgen receptor and AKT

J Clin Invest

2021 Peter Nelson; Ilsa Coleman

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is essential for PCa cell growth/survival and remains a key therapeutic target for lethal castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). GATA2 is a pioneer transcription factor crucial for inducing AR expression/activation. We recently reported that MAPK4, an atypical MAPK, promotes tumor progression via noncanonical activation of AKT. Here, we demonstrated that MAPK4 activated AR by enhancing GATA2 transcriptional expression and stabilizing GATA2 protein through repression of GATA2 ubiquitination/degradation. MAPK4 expression correlated with AR activation in human CRPC. Concerted activation of both GATA2/AR and AKT by MAPK4 promoted PCa cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, xenograft growth, and castration resistance. Conversely, knockdown of MAPK4 decreased activation of both AR and AKT and inhibited PCa cell and xenograft growth, including castration-resistant growth. Both GATA2/AR and AKT activation were necessary for MAPK4 tumor-promoting activity. Interestingly, combined overexpression of GATA2 plus a constitutively activated AKT was sufficient to drive PCa growth and castration resistance, shedding light on an alternative, MAPK4-independent tumor-promoting pathway in human PCa. We concluded that MAPK4 promotes PCa growth and castration resistance by cooperating parallel pathways of activating GATA2/AR and AKT and that MAPK4 is a novel therapeutic target in PCa, especially CRPC.

Co-occurrence of immune-mediated conditions and endometriosis among adolescents and adult women

Am J Reprod Immunol

2021 Holly Harris

PROBLEM: Associations between immune dysfunction conditions (e.g. systemic lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis) and endometriosis have been observed in adult women, but not assessed among a younger population. We investigated the association between immune-mediated conditions and endometriosis among young women. METHOD OF STUDY: This cross-sectional analysis in the Women's Health Study: From Adolescence to Adulthood included 551 participants with surgically-diagnosed endometriosis (median age=19) and 652 controls without endometriosis (median age=24). Participants completed an expanded Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonization Project questionnaire. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to investigate the associations between autoimmune/inflammatory, atopic, chronic pain/fatigue, and endocrine disorders with endometriosis, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Participants with any autoimmune and/or inflammatory condition had an increased odds of co-occurring endometriosis (OR:1.87; CI:0.92-3.80), as did participants with allergies (OR:1.76; CI:1.32-2.36), asthma (OR:1.35; CI:0.97-1.88), chronic fatigue syndrome and/or fibromyalgia (OR:5.81; CI:1.89-17.9), or previous mononucleosis (OR:1.75; CI:1.14-2.68). Odds of endometriosis were lower among participants with eczema (OR:0.68; CI:0.44-1.04). We observed a positive trend between the number of immune-mediated conditions and the odds of endometriosis (p-trend=0.0002). Endocrine disorders were not associated with endometriosis. CONCLUSIONS: Among this population of adolescents and adult women, endometriosis was more likely among participants with autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases, allergies, asthma, previous mononucleosis infection, and chronic fatigue and/or fibromyalgia. We observed that an increasing number of immune-mediated conditions was positively associated with endometriosis risk. It is important for clinicians who care for adolescents and women with these conditions to consider endometriosis as a co-morbidity.

A comparison of sunitinib with cabozantinib, crizotinib, and savolitinib for treatment of advanced papillary renal cell carcinoma: a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial

Lancet

2021 Melissa Pletts; Catherine Tangen; Maria Tretiakova

BACKGROUND: MET (also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor) signalling is a key driver of papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). Given that no optimal therapy for metastatic PRCC exists, we aimed to compare an existing standard of care, sunitinib, with the MET kinase inhibitors cabozantinib, crizotinib, and savolitinib for treatment of patients with PRCC. METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial done in 65 centres in the USA and Canada. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with metastatic PRCC who had received up to one previous therapy (excluding vascular endothelial growth factor-directed and MET-directed agents). Patients were randomly assigned to receive sunitinib, cabozantinib, crizotinib, or savolitinib, with stratification by receipt of previous therapy and PRCC subtype. All drug doses were administered orally: sunitinib 50 mg, 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off (dose reductions to 375 mg and 25 mg allowed); cabozantinib 60 mg daily (reductions to 40 mg and 20 mg allowed); crizotinib 250 mg twice daily (reductions to 200 mg twice daily and 250 mg once daily allowed); and savolitinib 600 mg daily (reductions to 400 mg and 200 mg allowed). Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint. Analyses were done in an intention-to-treat population, with patients who did not receive protocol therapy excluded from safety analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02761057. FINDINGS: Between April 5, 2016, and Dec 15, 2019, 152 patients were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. Five patients were identified as ineligible post-randomisation and were excluded from these analyses, resulting in 147 eligible patients. Assignment to the savolitinib (29 patients) and crizotinib (28 patients) groups was halted after a prespecified futility analysis; planned accrual was completed for both sunitinib (46 patients) and cabozantinib (44 patients) groups. PFS was longer in patients in the cabozantinib group (median 90 months, 95% CI 6-12) than in the sunitinib group (56 months, 3-7; hazard ratio for progression or death 060, 037-097, one-sided p=0019). Response rate for cabozantinib was 23% versus 4% for sunitinib (two-sided p=0010). Savolitinib and crizotinib did not improve PFS compared with sunitinib. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 31 (69%) of 45 patients receiving sunitinib, 32 (74%) of 43 receiving cabozantinib, ten (37%) of 27 receiving crizotinib, and 11 (39%) of 28 receiving savolitinib; one grade 5 thromboembolic event was recorded in the cabozantinib group. INTERPRETATION: Cabozantinib treatment resulted in significantly longer PFS compared with sunitinib in patients with metastatic PRCC. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute.