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Chemotherapy and Risk of Subsequent Malignant Neoplasms in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Cohort

J Clin Oncol

2019 Leisenring, Wendy M, ScD Wendy m Leisenring

PURPOSE: Therapeutic radiation in childhood cancer has decreased over time with a concomitant increase in chemotherapy. Limited data exist on chemotherapy-associated subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN) risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS: SMNs occurring > 5 years from diagnosis, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers, were evaluated in survivors diagnosed when they were < 21 years old, from 1970 to 1999 in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (median age at diagnosis, 7.0 years; median age at last follow-up, 31.8 years). Thirty-year SMN cumulative incidence and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated by treatment: chemotherapy-only (n = 7,448), chemotherapy plus radiation (n = 10,485), radiation only (n = 2,063), or neither (n = 2,158). Multivariable models were used to assess chemotherapy-associated SMN risk, including dose-response relationships. RESULTS: Of 1,498 SMNs among 1,344 survivors, 229 occurred among 206 survivors treated with chemotherapy only. Thirty-year SMN cumulative incidence was 3.9%, 9.0%, 10.8%, and 3.4% for the chemotherapy-only, chemotherapy plus radiation, radiation-only, or neither-treatment groups, respectively. Chemotherapy-only survivors had a 2.8-fold increased SMN risk compared with the general population (95% CI, 2.5 to 3.2), with SIRs increased for subsequent leukemia/lymphoma (1.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.7), breast cancer (4.6; 95% CI, 3.5 to 6.0), soft-tissue sarcoma (3.4; 95% CI, 1.9 to 5.7), thyroid cancer (3.8; 95% CI, 2.7 to 5.1), and melanoma (2.3; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.5). SMN rate was associated with > 750 mg/m2 platinum (relative rate [RR] 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.5), and a dose response was observed between alkylating agents and SMN rate (RR, 1.2/5,000 mg/m2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.3). A linear dose response was also demonstrated between anthracyclines and breast cancer rate (RR, 1.3/100 mg/m2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.6). CONCLUSION: Childhood cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy only, particularly higher cumulative doses of platinum and alkylating agents, face increased SMN risk. Linear dose responses were seen between alkylating agents and SMN rates and between anthracyclines and breast cancer rates. Limiting cumulative doses and consideration of alternate chemotherapies may reduce SMN risk.

Chemoprophylaxis vaccination: Phase 1 study to explore stage-specific immunity to Plasmodium falciparum in U.S. adults

Clin Infect Dis

2019 Wald, Anna, MD, MPH James Dai

BACKGROUND: Chemoprophylaxis vaccination with sporozoites (CVac) with chloroquine induces protection against homologous P. falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) challenge, but whether blood-stage parasite exposure is required for protection remains unclear. Chloroquine suppresses and clears blood-stage parasitemia, while other antimalarial drugs such as primaquine act against liver-stage parasites. Here, we evaluate CVac regimens using chloroquine or primaquine as the partner drug to discern whether blood stage parasite exposure impacts protection against homologous controlled human malaria infection. METHODS: In a phase 1, randomized, partial double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 36 malaria-nave adults, all CVac subjects received chloroquine prophylaxis and bites from 12-15 P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes (CVac-chloroquine arm) at 3 monthly iterations, and some received post-exposure primaquine (CVac-primaquine/chloroquine arm). Drug control subjects received primaquine, chloroquine, and uninfected mosquito bites. After chloroquine washout, subjects, including treatment-nave infectivity controls, underwent homologous PfSPZ controlled human malaria infection and were monitored for parasitemia for 21 days. RESULTS: No serious adverse events occurred. During CVac, all but one subject in the study remained blood smear-negative while only one subject (primaquine/chloroquine arm) remained PCR-negative. Upon challenge, compared to infectivity controls, 3/3 chloroquine arm subjects displayed delayed patent parasitemia (p=0.01) but not sterile protection, while 3/11 primaquine/chloroquine subjects remained blood smear negative. CONCLUSIONS: CVac-primaquine/chloroquine is safe and induces sterile immunity to P. falciparum in some recipients, but a single 45 mg dose of primaquine post-exposure does not completely prevent blood-stage parasitemia. Unlike previous studies, CVac-chloroquine did not produce sterile immunity. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01500980.

Guideline-concordant endometrial cancer treatment and survival in the Women's Health Initiative Life and Longevity After Cancer study

Int J Cancer

2019 Anderson, Garnet L, PhD Garnet Anderson

In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Life and Longevity After Cancer (LILAC) cohort we examined predictors of guideline-concordant treatment among endometrial cancer (EC) survivors and associations between receipt of guideline-concordant treatment and survival. Receipt of guideline-concordant EC treatment was defined according to year-specific National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictors of guideline-concordant treatment receipt. We estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for relationships between guideline-concordant treatment and overall survival using Cox proportional hazards regression. We included 629 women with EC, of whom 83.6% (n=526) received guideline-concordant treatment. Receipt of guideline-concordant treatment was less common among women with non-endometrioid histology (OR=0.24, 95% CI=0.13-0.45) but was more common among women living in the Midwest (OR=2.09, 95% CI=1.06-4.12) or West (OR=3.02, 95% CI=1.49-6.13) compared to the Northeast. In Cox regression models adjusted for age, histology, and stage, receipt of guideline-concordant EC treatment was borderline associated with improved overall survival (HR=0.80, 95% CI=0.60-1.01) in the overall population. Guideline-concordant treatment was also linked with better overall survival among women with low-grade uterine-confined endometrioid EC or widely metastatic endometrioid EC. Guideline-concordant treatment varies by some patient characteristics and those women in receipt of guideline-concordant care had borderline improved survival. Studies evaluating regional differences in treatment along with randomized clinical trials to determine appropriate treatment regimens for women with aggressive tumor characteristics are warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Use of an Indeterminate Range in HIV Early Infant Diagnosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr

2019 Fong, Youyi, PhD Youyi Fong

BACKGROUND: Expanded access to HIV antiretrovirals has dramatically reduced mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, there is increasing concern around false-positive HIV test results in perinatally HIV-exposed infants but few insights into the use of indeterminate range to improve infant HIV diagnosis. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the use of an indeterminate range for HIV early infant diagnosis. Published and unpublished studies from 2000 to 2018 were included. Study quality was evaluated using GRADE and QUADAS-2 criteria. A random-effects model compared various indeterminate ranges for identifying true and false positives. RESULTS: The review identified 32 studies with data from over 1.3 million infants across 14 countries published from 2000 to 2018. Indeterminate results accounted for 16.5% of initial non-negative test results, and 76% of indeterminate results were negative on repeat testing. Most results were from Roche tests. In the random-effects model, an indeterminate range using a polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold value of 33 captured over 93% of false positives while classifying fewer than 9% of true positives as indeterminate. CONCLUSIONS: Without the use of an indeterminate range, over 10% of infants could be incorrectly diagnosed as HIV positive if their initial test results are not confirmed. Use of an indeterminate range appears to lead to substantial improvements in the accuracy of early infant diagnosis testing and supports current recommendations to confirm all initial positive tests.

Employment changes following breast cancer diagnosis: the effects of race and place

J Natl Cancer Inst

2019 Ko, Linda K, PhD Linda Ko

The financial implications of breast cancer diagnosis may be greater among rural and Black women. Women with incident breast cancer were recruited as part of the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. We compared unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of cancer-related job or income loss, and a composite measure of either outcome, by rural residence and stratified by race. 2,435 women were included, 11.7% were rural, 48.5% were Black, and 38.0% reported employment changes after diagnosis. Rural women more often reported employment effects, including reduced household income (43.6% vs. 35.4%, two-sided chi-square test p = 0.04). Rural White, rural Black, and urban Black women each more often reported income reduction (statistically significant vs. urban White women), although these groups did not meaningfully differ from each other. In multivariable regression, rural differences were mediated by socioeconomic factors but racial differences remained. Programs and policies to reduce financial toxicity in vulnerable patients should address indirect costs of cancer, including lost wages and employment.

Designing precision medicine trials to yield greater population impact

Biometrics

2019 Zhao, Yingqi, PhD Yingqi Zhao

Traditionally, a clinical trial is conducted comparing treatment to standard care for all patients. However, it could be inefficient given patients' heterogeneous responses to treatments, and rapid advances in the molecular understanding of diseases have made biomarker-based clinical trials increasingly popular. We propose a new targeted clinical trial design, termed as Max-Impact design, which selects the appropriate subpopulation for a clinical trial and aims to optimize population impact once the trial is completed. The proposed design not only gains insights on the patients who would be included in the trial, but also considers the benefit to the excluded patients. We develop novel algorithms to construct enrollment rules for optimizing population impact, which are fairly general and can be applied to various types of outcomes. Simulation studies and a data example from the SWOG Cancer Research Network demonstrate the competitive performance of our proposed method compared to traditional untargeted and targeted designs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Safety and Costs of Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Nodal Aspiration and Mediastinoscopy

Chest

2019 Wood, Douglas E Joshua Roth

BACKGROUND: There remains debate over the best invasive diagnostic modality for mediastinal nodal evaluation. Prior studies have limited generalizability and insufficient power to detect differences in rare adverse events. We compared the risks and costs of endobronchial ultrasound-guided nodal aspiration (EBUS) and mediastinoscopy performed for any indication in a large national cohort. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study (2007-2015) using MarketScan-a claims database of individuals with employer-provided insurance in the United States. Patients who underwent multi-modality mediastinal evaluation (n=1,396) or same-day pulmonary resection (n=2,130) were excluded. Regression models were used to evaluate associations between diagnostic modalities and risks and costs while adjusting for patient characteristics, year, concomitant bronchoscopic procedures, and lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 30,570 patients, 49% underwent EBUS. Severe adverse events-pneumothorax, hemothorax, airway/vascular injuries, or death-were rare and invariant between EBUS and mediastinoscopy (0.3% versus 0.4%, p=0.189). The rate of vocal cord paralysis was lower for EBUS (1.4% versus 2.2%, p<0.001). EBUS was associated with a lower adjusted risk of severe adverse events (odds ratio [OR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32-0.55) and vocal cord paralysis (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.60). The mean cost of EBUS was $2,211 less than mediastinoscopy ($6,816 versus $9,023, p<0.001). After adjustment this difference decreased to $1,650 (95% CI $1,525-$1,776). CONCLUSIONS: When performed as isolated procedures, EBUS is associated with lower risks and costs compared to mediastinoscopy. Future studies comparing the effectiveness of EBUS versus mediastinoscopy in the community-at-large will help determine which procedure is superior or if trade-offs exist.

Tryptophan Metabolites in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: An Overnight Time-course Study

Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility

2019 Raftery, Dan, PhD Dan Raftery

Background/Aims: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report poor sleep quality. Whether poor sleep is associated with tryptophan (Trp) metabolites is unknown. We compared serum Trp metabolites in women with IBS and healthy controls (HCs) using targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based profiling. In IBS only, we explored whether Trp metabolites are associated with IBS symptoms and subjective and objective sleep indices, serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol/ACTH levels. Methods: Blood samples were obtained every 80 minutes in 21 HCs and 38 IBS subjects following an anticipation-of-public-speaking stressor during a sleep laboratory protocol. Subjects completed symptom diaries for 28 days. Adjacent values of metabolites were averaged to represent 4 time-periods: awake, early sleep, mid-sleep, and mid-to-late sleep. Thirteen of 20 targeted Trp metabolites were identified. Results: Ten of 13 Trp metabolites decreased across the night, while nicotinamide increased in both groups. A MANOVA omnibus test performed after principal component analysis showed a significant difference in these 13 principal component (P = 0.014) between groups. Compared to HCs, nicotinamide levels were higher and indole-3-lactic acid levels lower in the IBS group. Melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid levels were associated with several subjective/objective sleep measures; decreased stool consistency/frequency and abdominal pain were positively associated with melatonin and serotonin in the IBS group. The kynurenine and kynurenic acid were associated with ACTH (positively) and cortisol/ACTH (negatively). Conclusion: Nighttime Trp metabolites may provide clues to poor sleep and stress with IBS. Further study of the mechanism of metabolite action is warranted.

Antibody Fc effector functions and IgG3 associate with decreased HIV-1 risk

J Clin Invest

2019 Young, William C Youyi Fong

HVTN 505 is a preventative vaccine efficacy trial testing DNA followed by recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) in circumcised, Ad5-seronegative men and transgendered persons who have sex with men in the United States. Identified immune correlates of lower HIV-1 risk and a virus sieve analysis revealed that, despite lacking overall efficacy, vaccine-elicited responses exerted pressure on infecting HIV-1 viruses. To interrogate the mechanism of the antibody correlate of HIV-1 risk, we examined antigen-specific antibody recruitment of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and the role of anti-envelope (anti-Env) IgG3. In a prespecified immune correlates analysis, antibody-dependent monocyte phagocytosis and antibody binding to FcγRIIa correlated with decreased HIV-1 risk. Follow-up analyses revealed that anti-Env IgG3 breadth correlated with reduced HIV-1 risk, anti-Env IgA negatively modified infection risk by Fc effector functions, and that vaccine recipients with a specific FcγRIIa single-nucleotide polymorphism locus had a stronger correlation with decreased HIV-1 risk when ADCP, Env-FcγRIIa, and IgG3 binding were high. Additionally, FcγRIIa engagement correlated with decreased viral load setpoint in vaccine recipients who acquired HIV-1. These data support a role for vaccine-elicited anti-HIV-1 Env IgG3, antibody engagement of FcRs, and phagocytosis as potential mechanisms for HIV-1 prevention.

Broccoli or Sulforaphane: Is It the Source or Dose That Matters?

Molecules

2019 Kensler, Thomas, PhD Thomas Kensler

There is robust epidemiological evidence for the beneficial effects of broccoli consumption on health, many of them clearly mediated by the isothiocyanate sulforaphane. Present in the plant as its precursor, glucoraphanin, sulforaphane is formed through the actions of myrosinase, a β-thioglucosidase present in either the plant tissue or the mammalian microbiome. Since first isolated from broccoli and demonstrated to have cancer chemoprotective properties in rats in the early 1990s, over 3000 publications have described its efficacy in rodent disease models, underlying mechanisms of action or, to date, over 50 clinical trials examining pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and disease mitigation. This review evaluates the current state of knowledge regarding the relationships between formulation (e.g., plants, sprouts, beverages, supplements), bioavailability and efficacy, and the doses of glucoraphanin and/or sulforaphane that have been used in pre-clinical and clinical studies. We pay special attention to the challenges for better integration of animal model and clinical studies, particularly with regard to selection of dose and route of administration. More effort is required to elucidate underlying mechanisms of action and to develop and validate biomarkers of pharmacodynamic action in humans. A sobering lesson is that changes in approach will be required to implement a public health paradigm for dispensing benefit across all spectrums of the global population.