BACKGROUND: Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 is a common persistent infection that frequently reactivates to cause recurrent lesions and recurrent viral shedding which is incompletely controlled by antiviral therapy. GEN-003 is a candidate therapeutic vaccine containing 2 HSV-2 proteins, gD2 and ICP4, and Matrix-M2 adjuvant (M2). METHODS: HSV-2 seropositive persons with genital herpes were randomized into three dose cohorts of Gen-003 (60microg antigen/50microgM2, 60microg/75microgM2 or Placebo). Three intramuscular doses 21days apart of GEN-003 or placebo were administered. Participants obtained genital area swabs twice-daily for HSV-2 detection and monitored genital lesions for 12months. The rates of virus shedding and lesion rates before vaccination were compared to 3 defined periods after vaccination; Days 43-71, Month 6 and Month 12. RESULTS: GEN-003 at a dose of 60microg each antigen/50microgM2 reduced HSV shedding immediately after dosing with a rate ratio of 0.58, compared to 0.75 for the GEN-003 60microg/75microgM2 and 1.06 for placebo. Lesion rates, recurrence rates, and duration of recurrences were also reduced. Reactogenicity was higher with the 75microgM2 dose than the 50microgM2 dose, specifically for pain, tenderness, malaise and fatigue. Antibody and cellular immune responses were stimulated by both doses and persisted to 12months. CONCLUSIONS: GEN-003 vaccine manufactured with a scalable process gave results similar to those observed in prior clinical trials. GEN-003 had an acceptable safety profile and stimulated both humoral and cellular immune responses. The 60microg antigen/50microgM2 provided the maximal effect on virologic and clinical measures and warrants further development. (Funded by Genocea; ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02515175).
These updated guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice review the diagnosis, prevention and management of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the pre- and post-transplant period. Primary varicella is an uncommon complication post-solid-organ transplant (SOT), except among pediatric transplant patients and those seronegative for VZV. As the majority of SOT recipients are seropositive for VZV, herpes zoster (HZ) occurs frequently following SOT, particularly among recipients who are older (>/=65 years of age) and those receiving more intensive immunosuppression. Transplant providers should aware of the increased risk for HZ-related complications such as dissemination, organ-specific involvement and post-herpetic neuralgia. Treatment for localized zoster is primarily given as oral regimens, but those with more complicated presentations or those at risk for dissemination should be treated initially with IV therapy. Available antiviral prophylaxis regimens and vaccination strategies for varicella and HZ among these immunosuppressed patients remain a mainstay for prevention in the pre and post-transplant periods. Finally, we discuss important approaches to addressing post-exposure prophylaxis and infection control practices for those SOT patients with documented VZV infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PURPOSE: "Endemic" Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a common childhood cancer in Africa. Social and treatment factors may contribute to poor survival. With the aim of improving BL outcomes in Uganda, we undertook a comprehensive project (BL Project) that provided diagnostic support, access to standard chemotherapy, nutritional evaluations, and case management. We evaluated survival of children with BL in the context of the project. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients followed by the BL Project who consented to research were enrolled in this study. Children with a pathology diagnosis consistent with BL were eligible. Data were collected prospectively. First-line chemotherapy generally consisted of six cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, low-dose methotrexate (COM). We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses to evaluate factors associated with overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Between July 2012 and June 2017, 341 patients with suspected BL presented to the BL Project. One hundred eighty patients with a pathology-based diagnosis were included in this study. The median age was seven years (interquartile range, 5-9), 74% lived >/=100 km from the Uganda Cancer Institute, 61% had late-stage disease, 84% had ECOG performance status < 3, 63% reported B-symptoms, and 22% showed neurologic symptoms. Fewer than 10% abandoned therapy. The four-year OS rate was 44% (95% CI, 36%-53%). In a multivariate model, ECOG status was significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: The BL Project reduced effects of lacking supportive care and oncology resources, and allowed patients from Uganda to receive curative intent therapy with minimal loss to follow-up. Nonetheless, OS remains unacceptably low. Improved therapeutic approaches to endemic BL are urgently needed in Africa.
Importance: Anti-PD-1 (anti-programmed cell death 1) and anti-PD-L1 (anti-programmed cell death ligand 1) regimens are preferred therapies for many cancers, including cancers associated with HIV. However, patients with HIV were excluded from most registered trials. Objective: The primary objective was to evaluate the safety of pembrolizumab in people with HIV and advanced cancer; the secondary objective was to evaluate tumor responses. Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label, nonrandomized, phase 1 multicenter study conducted at 7 Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network sites. Patients with HIV and advanced cancer as well as a CD4 count greater than or equal to 100 cells/muL, antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 4 or more weeks, and an HIV viral load of less than 200 copies/mL were eligible. Exclusion criteria included uncontrolled hepatitis B or C infection, active immunosuppressive therapy, or a history of autoimmune disease requiring systemic therapy. Interventions: Pembrolizumab, 200 mg, administered intravenously every 3 weeks for up to 35 doses in 3 CD4 count-defined cohorts. Participants continued ART. Main Outcomes and Measures: Safety and tolerability were assessed using current NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Immune-related adverse events grade 2 or higher were considered immune-related events of clinical interest (irECI). Tumor responses were evaluated using standard tumor-specific criteria. Results: Thirty participants (28 men and 2 women; median [range] age, 57 [39-77] years) were enrolled from April 2016 through March 2018; 6 had Kaposi sarcoma (KS), 5 had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and 19 had non-AIDS-defining cancers. Safety was observed over 183 cycles of treatment with pembrolizumab. Most treatment-emergent adverse events at least possibly attributed to pembrolizumab were grade 1 or 2 (n = 22), and 20% (n = 6) were grade 3. The irECI included hypothyroidism (6 participants), pneumonitis (3 participants), rash (2 participants), an elevated aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase level (1 participant), and a musculoskeletal event (1 participant). One participant with pretreatment KS herpesvirus (KSHV) viremia developed a polyclonal KSHV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferation and died. HIV was controlled in all participants. Increases in CD4 count were not statistically significant (median increase, 19 cells/muL; P = .18). Best tumor responses included complete response (lung, 1 patient), partial response (NHL, 2 patients), stable disease for 24 weeks or more (KS, 2 patients), stable disease for less than 24 weeks (15 patients), and progressive disease (8 patients); 2 patients were not evaluable. Conclusions and Relevance: Pembrolizumab has acceptable safety in patients with cancer, HIV treated with ART, and a CD4+ T-cell count of greater than 100 cells/muL but may be associated with KSHV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferation. Clinical benefit was noted in lung cancer, NHL, and KS. Anti-PD-1 therapy is appropriate for US Food and Drug Administration-approved indications and clinical trials in this population. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02595866.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
OBJECTIVES: Identifying factors associated with mortality among acutely ill HIV-infected children presenting with advanced HIV disease may help clinicians optimize care for those at highest risk of death. DESIGN: Using data from a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880), we determined baseline sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory cofactors of mortality among HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS: We enrolled hospitalized, HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naive children (0-12 years), initiated antiretroviral therapy, and followed up them for 6 months. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Of 181 enrolled children, 39 (22%) died. Common diagnoses at death were pneumonia or suspected pulmonary tuberculosis [23 (59%)] and gastroenteritis [7 (18%)]. Factors associated with mortality in univariate analysis included age <2 years [HR 3.08 (95% CI: 1.50 to 6.33)], orphaned or vulnerable child (OVC) [HR 2.05 (95% CI: 1.09 to 3.84)], weight-for-age Z score <-2 [HR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.05 to 5.00)], diagnosis of pneumonia with hypoxia [HR 5.25 (95% CI: 2.00 to 13.84)], oral thrush [HR 2.17 (95% CI: 1.15 to 4.09)], persistent diarrhea [HR 3.81 (95% CI: 1.89 to 7.69)], and higher log10 HIV-1 viral load [HR 2.16 (95% CI: 1.35 to 3.46)] (all P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, age <2 years and OVC status remained significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Young age and OVC status independently predicted mortality. Hypoxic pneumonia, oral thrush, and persistent diarrhea are important clinical features that predict mortality. Strategies to enhance early diagnosis in children and improve hospital management of critically ill HIV-infected children are needed.
Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies protect against infection with HIV-1 in animal models, suggesting that a vaccine that elicits these antibodies would be protective in humans. However, it has not yet been possible to induce adequate serological responses by vaccination. Here, to activate B cells that express precursors of broadly neutralizing antibodies within polyclonal repertoires, we developed an immunogen, RC1, that facilitates the recognition of the variable loop 3 (V3)-glycan patch on the envelope protein of HIV-1. RC1 conceals non-conserved immunodominant regions by the addition of glycans and/or multimerization on virus-like particles. Immunization of mice, rabbits and rhesus macaques with RC1 elicited serological responses that targeted the V3-glycan patch. Antibody cloning and cryo-electron microscopy structures of antibody-envelope complexes confirmed that immunization with RC1 expands clones of B cells that carry the anti-V3-glycan patch antibodies, which resemble precursors of human broadly neutralizing antibodies. Thus, RC1 may be a suitable priming immunogen for sequential vaccination strategies in the context of polyclonal repertoires.
Lancet Infect Dis
Cytomegalovirus is one of the most important infections to occur after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and an increasing number of reports indicate that cytomegalovirus is also a potentially important pathogen in patients treated with recently introduced drugs for hematological malignancies. Expert recommendations have been produced by the 2017 European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL 7) after a review of the literature on the diagnosis and management of cytomegalovirus in patients after HSCT and in patients receiving other types of therapy for haematological malignancies. These recommendations cover diagnosis, preventive strategies such as prophylaxis and pre-emptive therapy, and management of cytomegalovirus disease. Antiviral drugs including maribavir and letermovir are in development and prospective clinical trials have recently been completed. However, management of patients with resistant or refractory cytomegalovirus infection or cytomegalovirus disease is a challenge. In this Review we summarise the reviewed literature and the recommendations of the ECIL 7 for management of cytomegalovirus in patients with haematological malignancies.
Cerebral malaria is a severe neurological complication associated with sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) in the brain microvasculature, but the specific binding interactions remain under debate. Here, we have generated an engineered three-dimensional (3D) human brain endothelial microvessel model and studied P. falciparum binding under the large range of physiological flow velocities that occur in both health and disease. Perfusion assays on 3D microvessels reveal previously unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity in parasite binding to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-activated brain endothelial cells. While clonal parasite lines expressing a group B P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) present an increase in binding to activated 3D microvessels, P. falciparum -IE expressing DC8-PfEMP1 present a decrease in binding. The differential response to endothelium activation is mediated by surface expression changes of endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). These findings demonstrate heterogeneity in parasite binding and provide evidence for a parasite strategy to adapt to a changing microvascular environment during infection. The engineered 3D human brain microvessel model provides new mechanistic insight into parasite binding and opens opportunities for further studies on malaria pathogenesis and parasite-vessel interactions.IMPORTANCE Cerebral malaria research has been hindered by the inaccessibility of the brain. Here, we have developed an engineered 3D human brain microvessel model that mimics the blood flow rates and architecture of small blood vessels to study how P. falciparum -infected human erythrocytes attach to brain endothelial cells. By studying parasite lines with different adhesive properties, we show that the malaria parasite binding rate is heterogeneous and strongly influenced by physiological differences in flow and whether the endothelium has been previously activated by TNF-alpha, a proinflammatory cytokine that is linked to malaria disease severity. We also show the importance of human EPCR and ICAM-1 in parasite binding. Our model sheds new light on how P. falciparum binds within brain microvessels and provides a powerful method for future investigations of recruitment of human brain pathogens to the blood vessel lining of the brain.
J Oral Biosci
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: I) discover novel human papillomaviruses (HPVs) using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology in oral rinse samples collected from oral cavity cancer (OCC) and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients; II) determine the prevalence of novel HPVs in archived OCC and OPC tissue samples; and III) examine the frequency of novel oncogenic HPVs in cancer and non-cancer oral rinse samples using real-time PCR. METHODS: Oral rinse samples were collected from 100 head and neck cancer patients, and 110 healthy individuals. NGS techniques were used to detect novel HPVs. RESULTS: Three potentially new types of HPV were discovered. Novel virus (NV) 14.4 was closely related to HPV76 with an 89% homology and is a member of the genus Beta-papillomavirus (beta-PV); NV69.1 was distantly related to the genus Alpha-papillomavirus (alpha-PV), and NV95 was closely related to HPV147 with a 65-77% homology and is part of the genus Gamma-papillomavirus (gamma-PV). In archived oral tissue samples, NV14.4 was detected in a single patient with OCC. Of the oral rinse samples, NV69.1 was more prevalent than the other two NVs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that there are novel HPVs present in oral rinse samples that may be associated with OCC and OPC. These novel HPVs can be identified and characterized using NGS techniques.
J Exp Med
Classical antagonistic antibodies (Abs) targeting PD-1, such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, act through blockade of the PD-1-PDL-1 interaction. Here, we have identified novel antagonistic anti-PD-1 Abs not blocking the PD-1-PDL-1 interaction. The nonblocking Abs recognize epitopes on PD-1 located on the opposing face of the PDL-1 interaction and overlap with a newly identified evolutionarily conserved patch. These nonblocking Abs act predominantly through the CD28 coreceptor. Importantly, a combination of blocking and nonblocking Abs synergize in the functional recovery of antigen-specific exhausted CD8 T cells. Interestingly, nonblocking anti-PD-1 Abs have equivalent antitumor activity compared with blocker Abs in two mouse tumor models, and combination therapy using both classes of Abs enhanced tumor suppression in the mouse immunogenic tumor model. The identification of the novel nonblocker anti-PD-1 Abs and their synergy with classical blocker Abs may be instrumental in potentiating immunotherapy strategies and antitumor activity.